St. George's Anglican Church                           St. Paul's Anglican Church
            Battleford, Saskatchewan                         North Battleford, Saskatchewan
Terms in List = 405               Appended - November 24, 2014

ABADDON – This is the name of a chief angel of Satan whose domain is the bottomless pit. In Hebrew, Abaddon signifies “the place of destruction personified.” In the Greek, Abaddon is called “Apollyon” (Revelation 9:11). Abaddon is used also as a parallel with Sheol (Job 26:6; Proverbs 15:11; 27:20), with death (Job 28:22), and with the grave (Psalm 88:11). “”
ABASE – 1. (v.) To degrade; to lower in rank or esteem; to dishonor. 2. (v.) To cast down or reduce low or lower, as in rank, office, condition in life, or estimation of worthiness; to depress; to humble; to degrade. 3. To throw or cast down; as, to abase the eye.
ABELBETHMAACHAH – Meadow of the house of Maachah, a city in the north of Palestine, in the neighbourhood of Dan and Ijon, in the tribe of Naphtali. It was a place of considerable strength and importance. It is called a “mother in Israel”, i.e., a metropolis.
Abednego – Servant of Nego=Nebo, the Chaldee name given to Azariah, one of Daniel's three companions (Dan. 2:49). With Shadrach and Meshach, he was delivered from the burning fiery furnace (3:12-30).
ABIMELECH – My father a king, or father of a king, a common name of the Philistine kings, as "Pharaoh" was of the Egyptian kings.
ABOMINAION of DESOLATION –  The Antichrist will take control of Jewish worship midway through the Tribulation, declaring himself to be God (2 Thessalonians 2:4) and demanding worship from the Jews in their own Temple, even to the point of setting up an Image of the Beast therein. This image of the unholy one is the abomination that renders desolate all Jewish hopes (Daniel 12:11; Matthew 24:15-22). The true Jewish heart will be broken, because idolatry is forbidden in the Ten Commandments (Exodus 20:4). This act precipitates the judgment of God as the Temple fills with smoke and seven angels come out carrying seven plagues. The voice of Almighty God issues forth from the smoke-filled Temple, directing the angels to carry out their duties. His holiness has been offended. Mankind has worshipped a man, Antichrist, the devil in human skin ... even bowing to this image (Matthew 24:15; Isaiah 42:8; Exodus 20:4-6). Mankind, en masse, has grossly violated God's commandment about images during the Tribulation period and promised judgment must begin (Isaiah 42:8; Exodus 20:4-6).
Abraham's Bosom – A place of comfort to which the angels carried Lazarus upon his death (Luke 16:22). It is equivalent to Paradise (See Hades). All Gods people went there until Calvary. Abraham s Bosom, the comfort side of Hades, was evacuated after Christ's crucifixion and resurrection when Christ descended into the lower parts of the earth and scended, taking His people waiting there to the third heaven (where all saints presently go at death) (Ephesians 4:8-10; 2 Corinthians 12:2-5).
ABYSS –  is a bottomless depth. (See Bottomless Pit)
ACTS – (Acts of the Apostles) The title now given to the fifth and last of the historical books of the New Testament. It was early called “The Acts,” “The Gospel of the Holy Ghost,” and “The Gospel of the resurrection.”
ADJURATION – A solemn appeal whereby one person imposes on another the obligation of speaking or acting as if under an oath. It would seem that in such a case the person so adjured could not refuse to give an answer.
ADMONISH – 1. (v. t.) To warn or notify of a fault; to reprove gently or kindly, but seriously; to exhort. 2. (v. t.) To counsel against wrong practices; to caution or advise; to warn against danger or an offense; -- followed by of, against, or a subordinate clause. 3. (v. t.) To instruct or direct; to inform; to notify.
ADULTERY – Conjugal infidelity. An adulterer was a man who had illicit intercourse with a married or a betrothed woman, and such a woman was an adulteress. Intercourse between a married man and an unmarried woman was fornication. Adultery is regarded as a great social wrong, as well as a great sin.
ADVENT – Coming; coming to; approach; arrival. (religion, Christianity) The first or the expected second coming of Christ. The period or season of the Christian church year between Advent Sunday and Christmas. A Sunday, the first day of Advent, 30 November (St Andrew's day) or the nearest Sunday to it.
AEON – (age), frequently translated “world,” evil in its tendency, is essentially a time word. It is often used in the sense of eternity, the sum total of all the ages (Matthew 6:13; Luke 1:33, 55; John 6:51, 58; 8:35; 12:34; Romans 9:5; 11:36; 2 Corinthians 9:9; Philippians 4:20; Hebrews 7:17, 21;
1 Peter 1:25; Revelation 15:7).
AGAPE – is one of several Greek words translated into English as love. Many have thought that this word represents divine, unconditional, self-sacrificing, active, volitional, and thoughtful love.
AGE – A period of time of indefinite duration (Acts 15:18) recognized by its characteristics and events (Mark 4:19; 1 Corinthians 2:6; Galatians 1:4; Ephesians 2:2; 2 Timothy 4:10).
    Note the differences between:
  1. “Before the ages”: before time began, or eternity past (1 Corinthians 2:7).
  2. “Ages past”: that span of time which ended with Christ's coming
    (Colossians 1:26; Ephesians 3:5).
  3. “This present age”: the time in which we are now living, ending with the Second Coming of Christ (Matthew 12:32; 13:39, 40, 49; Ephesians 1:21). This age witnesses the inception, development, and completion of God's purpose in taking out.., a people for his name
    (Acts 15:14).
  4. “Ages to come”: endless time, eternity future (Ephesians 2:7).
AGE OF GRACE – For over 2000 years we have been living in a prophetic interval. Daniel's prophecy in the vision of the 70 weeks (or 70 seven-year periods) called for a total of 490 years when God would deal especially with Isreal. When Christ offered himself as the Prince of Israel, 483 years, or 69 weeks of years had been fulfilled. When He was rejected and crucified, the prophetic clock stopped, not to begin again until the Jews were back in their land and the parenthetical period had ended.
During this interval, sometimes known as the Church Age, or Age of Grace, both Jews and Gentiles who are born again through faith in Christ become part of the body of Christ or the Bride of Christ. The signal that the “in between” period has ended, will be the removal of the Church (the Bride of Christ) from the earth. This great event is described in a number of Bible texts. One of the clearest is
1 Thessalonians 4:13-18. Then the prophetical clock ticks again for the final (70th)
Ages, Program of the – God has divided His program into time segments to evidence the progress of divine revelation through successive ages. There are many passages indicating God has a program for the ages (Deuteronomy 30:1-10; Daniel 2:31-45; 7:1-28; 9:24-27; Hosea 3:4, 5; Matthew 23:37-25:46; Acts 15:13-18; Romans 11:13-29; 2 Thessalonians 3:1-12; Revelations 2:1-22:31).
Christ is the very center of that program (Hebrews 1:1, 2; 9:26; Timothy 1:17; 1 Corinthians 10:11). Therefore, the ages are the time periods within which God is revealing His divine purpose and program as it centers in the Lord Jesus Christ.
ALABASTER – Occurs only in the New Testament in connection with the box of “ointment of spikenard very precious,” with the contents of which a woman anointed the head of Jesus as he sat at supper in the house of Simon the leper. These boxes were made from a stone found near Alabastron in Egypt, and from this circumstance the Greeks gave them the name of the city where they were made. The name was then given to the stone of which they were made; and finally to all perfume vessels, of whatever material they were formed. The woman “broke” the vessel; i.e., she broke off, as was usually done, the long and narrow neck so as to reach the contents. This stone resembles marble, but is softer in its texture, and hence very easily wrought into boxes.
ALLAH – (Arabic: Allah) is the standard Arabic word for God. While the term is best known in the West for its use by Muslims as a reference to God, it is used by Arabs of all Abrahamic faiths, including Mizrahi Jews, Baha'is and Eastern Orthodox Christians, in reference to God. The term was also used by pagan Meccans as a reference to the creator-god, possibly the supreme deity in pre-Islamic Arabia.
ALTAR – An altar is any structure upon which sacrifices or other offerings are made for religious purposes, or some other sacred place where ceremonies take place.
AMEN – The word amen "So be it; truly" is a declaration of affirmation found in the Hebrew Bible and New Testament. Its use in Judaism dates back to its earliest texts. It has been generally adopted in Christian worship as a concluding word for prayers and hymns.
Ampulla &  Spoon
AMPULLA – The Ampulla and spoon are used in the coronation ceremony to annoint the monarch's head palms and breast with holy oil.

Ananias – was a disciple of Jesus. The Acts of the Apostles describes how he was sent by God to restore Paul's sight and convert him to Christianity. ANGELS – Sometimes referred to as stars, these beings are God's messengers in the prophetic timetable. They announce events, pronounce judgments, and carry out God's wishes (they represent the seven churches in Revelation 1 and 2) and are often found praising the Lamb for His many attributes – Revelation 5. Angels take the lead in the praise and worship of God and rejoice with each crisis in the onward march of events to the consummation of the kingdom. Although they have never known conflict, sin, pardon, and victory, they rejoice over those who have given glory to God for His grace. After the resurrection at the last trump, they seem to fade from the scene as the heavenly redeemed sit down on thrones and exercise judgment with the Lord Jesus at His coming
(1 Corinthians 6:2, 3; Matthew 12:28).
ANGELS, FALLEN – (angelic followers of Satan) also known as demons. They are also referred to as stars (Revelation 12:4). Satan, himself is also an angelic being and appears as on in Revelation 9:1, 11, opening the Bottomless Pit and releasing his demons in the form of hideous creatures to torture mankind. They will be judged by Christ after the Tribulation, before the Millennium (1 Corinthians 6:3).
ANGLICAN – The word Anglican originates in ecclesia anglicana, a mediæval Latin phrase dating to at least 1246 meaning the English Church. Adherents of Anglicanism are termed Anglicans.
ANGLICANISM – is rooted in the beliefs and practices of Christian churches which either have historical connections with the Church of England or maintain a
liturgy compatible with it.
ANOINT – is to grease with perfumed oil, milk, water, melted butter or other substances, a process employed ritually by many religions and races. It also means to be in the presence of God. People and things are anointed to symbolize the introduction of a sacramental or divine influence, a holy emanation, spirit or power. It can also be seen as a spiritual mode of ridding persons and things of dangerous influences and diseases, especially of the demons which are believed to be or cause those diseases.
ANTICHRIST, The – (also known as Little horn, The prince that shall come, That man of sin, The son of perdition, That wicked one, and The beast) – Before Christ returns to set up His kingdom of peace, Satan will enter a man's body and present his counterfeit, the Antichrist, as the Messiah. This internationally deified dictator will inaugurate a world peace program which holds the world spellbound for 42 months, or three and one-half years. When the world believes utopia has arrived, the bottom falls out. In the middle of the seven-year period of Tribulation, the Antichrist breaks all of his pledges and destroys his contractual obligations with Israel (Daniel 9:27; 1 Thessalonians 5:3). He will come out of an amalgamation of ten Western nations (Daniel 9:26). He will meet his Waterloo when he is cast into the Lake of Fire with the False Prophet after Jesus Christ conquers him at Armageddon (Revelation 19:20).
ANTISEMITISM – (also spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism) is prejudice against or hostility towards Jews, often rooted in hatred of their ethnic background, culture, and/or religion. In its extreme form, it “attributes to the Jews an exceptional position among all other civilizations, defames them as an inferior group and denies their being part of the nation[s]” in which they reside. A person who practices antisemitism is called an “antisemite.”
APOCALYPSE – (Greek: Apok?lypsis; “lifting of the veil” or “revelation”) is a disclosure of something hidden from the majority of mankind in an era dominated by falsehood and misconception, i.e. the veil to be lifted. The term also can refer to the eschatological final battle, the Armageddon, and the idea of an end of the world. These perceptions may better be related to the phrase apokalupsis eschaton, literally “revelation at [or of] the end of the aeon, or age”. Something revealed.
APOLLYON – (Greek) “The destroyer”. In the New Testament of the Bible, Apollyon is called the angel of the Bottomless Pit. Abaddon, a poetic name for the land of the dead in the old testament, is Apollyon's Greek translation from the Hebrew language. Apollyon, in early Christian literature, is a name for the devil. He is identified as an angel of death, "hideous to behold, with scales like a fish, wings like a dragon, bear's feet, and a lion's mouth."
APOSTASY – The word apostasy does not appear in the King James Version and the Greek word, apostasia, occurs only in 2 Thessalonians 2:3 (“falling away”) and Acts 21:21 (“to forsake”); however, the concept occures often. Another meaning suggested is “withdrawal” or “departure.” The usual translation (falling away) indicates this to be a time of departure from the faith (2 Thessalonians 2:3) and rebelliion against God (1 Timothy 4:1-3; 2 Timothy 4:1). The Bible teaches that apostates will arise within the Christian church. They creep in secretly, quietly, and slowly, and once they are in they take over and deny the Lord Jesus Christ.
APOSTATE – The word derives from Greek (apostasia), meaning a defection or revolt, from apo, “away, apart”, stasis, “stand”, “standing”. The term is sometimes also used to refer to renunciation of a belief or cause. One who commits apostasy is an apostate, or one who apostatizes.
APOSTLE – The term apostle is derived from Koine Greek (apóstolos), meaning one who is sent forth as a messenger in contrast to a disciple who is a "student" that learns from a "teacher". Apostle is the Greek equivalent of the Hebrew word shaliah. Traditionally, Jesus is said to have had Twelve Apostles who spread the Gospel after his resurrection though there is also a tradition derived from the Gospel of Luke of Seventy Apostles.
APOSTOLIC – refers to the Twelve Apostles of Jesus, or something related to them.
APOSTOLIC AGE – in the history of Christianity is traditionally the period of the Twelve Apostles, dating from the Crucifixion of Jesus (c. 26–36) and the Great Commission until the death of John the Apostle (c. 100). Since it is believed that John lived so long and was the last of the twelve to die.
Ark of the Covenant ARK OF THE COVENANT  – The Ark of the covenant is a container described in the Bible as containing the Tablets of Stone on which were inscribed the Ten Commandments as well as Aaron's rod and manna. According to the Pentateuch, the Ark was built at the command of God, in accord with Moses' prophetic vision on Mount Sinai (Exodus 25:10-16). God communicated with Moses “from between the two cherubim” on the Ark's cover (Exodus 25:22). The Ark and its sanctuary were “the beauty of Israel”
ARCHBISHOP – is an elevated bishop. In the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion and others, this means that they lead a diocese of particular importance called an archdiocese, or in the Anglican Communion an Ecclesiastical Province, but this is not always the case. An archbishop is equivalent to a bishop in sacred matters but simply has a higher precedence or degree of prestige.
ARCHBISHOP of CANTERBURY – The 104th Archbishop of Canterbury, the Most Revd and Rt Hon Rowan Douglas Williams, was enthroned on the Feast of Blessed George Herbert, 27th February, 2003. He was previously Archbishop of Wales. His immediate predecessor was the Rt Revd Lord Carey of Clifton. The Archbishops of Canterbury are seen by the Anglican Communion of churches as their spiritual leader. He is primus inter pares, first among equals of the other Primates (Chief Archbishops, Presiding Bishops) of the various provinces. He is the Primate of All England and Diocesan of the Diocese of Canterbury. His “seat” is in Canterbury Cathedral where there is also
“St Augustine's Chair” that marks the significance of Canterbury to Anglicans.
ARCHDIOCESE – In the Roman Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion, an important diocese is called an archdiocese (usually due to size, historical significance, or both), which is governed by an Archbishop, who may be exempt from or have Metropolitan authority over the other dioceses within a wider jurisdiction called an ecclesiastical province.
ARMAGEDDON –  This is the closing battle of three and one-half years of skirmish in the Middle East. It begins with Russia's invasion of Israel after the peace contract of Daniel 9:27 is broken (Ezekiel 38:15, 16). Miracles performed through satanic power will convince the leaders of the earth, who are subservient to the Antichrist, to move all of their military might to the Middle East to do battle with Christ at His return to the Mount of Olives (Zechariah 14:4; Revelation 16:14). It will be the bloodiest battle in the history of the world. So great will be the destruction that it will require mankind seven months to bury the dead (Revelation 14:20; Ezekiel 39:12).
ASCENTION DAY – The Christian doctrine of the Ascension holds that Jesus ascended to heaven in the presence of his Eleven Apostles following his resurrection, and that in heaven he sits at the right hand of God the Father. Jesus died circa 30. In the Epistle to the Romans (c. 56-57), Saint Paul describes Christ as in heaven and in the abyss[Rom. 10:5-7] the earliest Christian reference to Jesus in heaven. The most influential account of the Ascension, and according to the two-source hypothesis the earliest, is in Acts of the Apostles[1:1-11] where Jesus is taken up bodily into heaven forty days after his resurrection as witnessed by his apostles, after giving the Great Commission with a prophecy to return. In the Gospel of Luke, the Ascension takes place on Easter Sunday evening.
ASCETICISM – (from the Greek: “exercise” or “training” in the sense of athletic training) describes a lifestyle characterized by abstinence from various sorts of worldly pleasures (especially sexual activity and consumption of alcohol) often with the aim of pursuing religious and spiritual goals. Christianity and the Indian religions (including yoga) teach that salvation and liberation involve a process of mind-body transformation effected by exercising restraint with respect to actions of body, speech, and mind.
ASH WEDNESDAY –  In the Western Christian calendar, Ash Wednesday is the first day of Lent and occurs forty days before Easter (excluding Sundays). It falls on a different date each year, because it is dependent on the date of Easter; it can occur as early as February 4 or as late as March 10.
AUGUR –  was a priest and official in the classical world, especially ancient Rome and Etruria. His main role was to interpret the will of the gods by studying the flight of birds: whether they are flying in groups/alone, what noises they make as they fly, direction of flight and what kind of birds they are. This was known as "taking the auspices." The ceremony and function of the augur was central to any major undertaking in Roman society—public or private—including matters of war, commerce, and religion.
AUSPICE –  An auspice (Latin: auspicium from auspex) is literally "one who looks at birds", a diviner who reads omens from the observed flight of birds. This type of omen reading was already a millennium old in the time of Classical Greece: in the fourteenth-century BCE diplomatic correspondence preserved in Egypt called the "Amarna correspondence", the practice was familiar to the king of Alasia in Cyprus who has need of an 'eagle diviner' to be sent from Egypt.
Babylon – God's Word mentions three Babylons: a city (Genesis 11), a church (Revelation 17), and a country (Revelation 18). Don't confuse the three by intermingling these chapters. The context of each text identifies who is who.
     1. The ancient city, Babylon, was built by Nimrod (Genesis 10:10), came into its greatest power under Nebuchadnezzar (Daniel 4:30), was the scene of Jewish captivity (2 Kings 25:1-21; 2 Chronicles 36:5-21; Acts 7:43), fell (Isaiah 13:1-22; Jeremiah 50:1-46), and was destined for perpetual desolation (Isaiah 13:19-22; Jeremiah 50:13, 39).
     2. The false church, Mystery Babylon the Great, is called the Mother of Harlots, (Revelation 17:3-5). Spiritual fornication in Scripture has reference to adherence to a false system. In contrast to the true Church, the “Bride of Christ,” this system has fallen from its pure position and become a harlot. This “great whore” (Revelation 17:1) is located in Rome, the eternal city, situated geographically upon seven hills (17:9), reigning over the kings of the earth (17:18). It is likely that the gloriously revived Roman Empire will bring this united world church into prominence. It is seen to be controlling the Beast upon which it sits. This system will be destroyed by the Beast so that his supremacy may not be threatened (Revelation 17:16,17).
     3. The country political Babylon (Isaiah 50,51), is probably the United States of America.
BALAAM –  is a diviner in the Torah, his story occurring towards the end of the Book of Numbers. Every ancient reference to Balaam considers him a non-Israelite, a prophet, and the son of Beor. Though other sources describe the apparently positive blessings he delivers upon the Israelites, he is reviled as a “wicked man” in the major story concerning him. Balaam attempted to curse God's people. He failed all three tries, each time producing blessings, not curses (Numbers 22-24).
BAPTISM – In Christianity, baptism meaning “immersing”, “performing ablution” is the sacramental act of cleansing in water that admits one as a full member of the Church. Most Christians, such as Anglicans, Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, and Lutherans, are baptized as infants. Most Christians baptize in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, but some baptize in Jesus' name only.
BC or B.C. – Before Christ, an epoch used in dating years prior to the estimated birth of Jesus. are designations used to label or number years used with the Julian and Gregorian calendars. This calendar era is based on the traditionally reckoned year of the conception or birth of Jesus of Nazareth, with AD counting years after the start of this epoch, and BC denoting years before the start of the epoch.
BCE – is a three letter acronym, that meaning Before the Common Era, also Before the Current Era, a secular alternative to BC (Before Christ).
BEAST, The – The rise of the Antichrist, the Beast, is the most significant political event during the Tribulation period. He is described by John in Revelation 13. Daniel spoke of him as the “little horn” whose power would reach its zenith for three and one-half years (Daniel 7:8; 8:9). He will control the economies of the world. (See also Antichrist, his number is 666)
BEASTS, Four (Of Revelation 4) – These are literal, created beings connected with the throne room of heaven (Revelation 4:6). They have eyes before and behind to see all things clearly and accurately (Revelation 4:6). By comparing the characteristics of these living creatures with Isaiah 6:13, we see that they are undoubtedly seraphim — angels of God — created to praise and exalt the Lord. These beings are not monstrosities. Instead, they are a picture of beauty. This is a portrait set before us...angels in all their magnificence praising the Lord.
BEASTS, Four (Of Daniel 7) – The Prophet Daniel interpreted Nebuchadnezzar's dream when he was a very young man. Nearly 40 years later he was given a vision that confirmed and further explained his first preview of the future. In this vision Daniel saw the major world empires represented by four beasts:
  1. The lion represents Nebuchadnezzar's Babylonian Empire.
  2. The bear is the Medo-Persian Empire that followed. (The bear was raised on one side because the Persians were stronger than the Medes. The three ribs in the bears mouth indicate three major conquests.)
  3. The leopard, having four wings and four heads, was a prophetic picture of the Grecian Empire. (After the death of Alexander the Great, his empire was divided between his four generals.)
  4. The fourth beast, described as “dreadful and terrible,” and “strong exceedingly,” represents the Roman Empire. His ten horns, which correspond to the ten toes on the image, represent ten nations that once were part of the Roman Empire. The “little horn speaking great things” will emerge as a powerful political leader to whom three national heads will give their full allegiance ... the Antichrist.
BEATITUDES – (from Latin “beatus”, meaning “blessed”) in other words a blessing, is the beginning portion of the Sermon on the Mount of the Gospel of Matthew. Some are also recorded in the Gospel of Luke. In the section, Jesus describes the qualities of the inhabitants of the Kingdom of heaven and indicates how each is or will be blessed.
BEMA SEAT – a name for the Judgment Seat of Christ. – Bema (from the Greek: bema, “step”) means a raised platform. Bema was also used as the name for a place of judgement, that is the raised seat of the judge, as described in the New Testament, in Matthew 27:19 and John 19:13.
BIBLE – The Bible refers to the sacred scriptures of Judaism and Christianity, usually compiled in a single volume. The Hebrew Bible of Judaism contains 39 books. The Christian Bible adds to the Hebrew Bible 27 New Testament books, and particularly in the Catholic and Orthodox traditions, some additional Old Testament books, giving a total of between 66 and 77 books. The Christian Bible is divided in two, roughly in a two-third to one-third proportion. Christians call the first two thirds, mostly inherited from the Jews, the Old Testament and the last third, considered written by themselves, the New Testament. The Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox versions of the Old Testament are slightly larger because of their acceptance and inclusion of certain texts considered apocryphal by Protestants. Considering only the "Old Testament", the Jewish canon and Christian canon differ considerably more than the Protestant and Roman Catholic arrangements differ.
BIBLICAL CALENDAR –  The Biblical calendar has a number of significant differences with the Roman or "Gregorian" calendar that most western nations use today. Unlike the Roman calendar that begins its year in winter (in the northern hemisphere), the Bible calendar begins in spring (in the Middle East). In accordance with its ancient beginnings (right from Creation when light was created after the darkness), Bible calendar days were, and are, determined to begin and end at sunset. The original Biblical calendar was lunar-based, with each month beginning at the determined time of the new moon. In ancient times, this was done by direct observation, the first day of the month declared when the first sliver became visible after the dark of the moon.
Bible MonthLength Roman Calendar Equivalent
1. Nisan30 daysMarch-April
2. Iyar29 days April-May
3. Sivan30 daysMay-June
4. Tammuz29 daysJune-July
5. Av30 daysJuly-August
6. Elul29 days August-September
7. Tishri30 daysSeptember-October
8. Cheshvan29 or 30 days October-November
9. Kislev30 or 29 days November-December
10. Tevet29 days December-January
11. Shevat30 days January-February
12. Adar29 or 30 days February-March
13. Adar II29 days March-April
In the fourth century, a fixed calendar was developed by Jewish scholars to compensate for the fact that there are 12.4 lunar months in a solar year. The new version, used right to modern times, standardized the calendar for the course of a 19 year cycle, so that it meshes perfectly with the seasons. To do this, certain months had a set variable number of days, and a 13th month, Adar II, was added in the 3rd, 6th, 8th, 11th, 14th, 17th and 19th years of the cycle. Although its rules can seem complicated, it is actually a very simple system of having a perfectly natural calendar.
BIBLICAL canon – or canon of scripture is a list or set of Biblical books considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular religious community, generally in Judaism or Christianity.
The term itself was first coined by Christians, but the idea is found in Jewish sources.
The internal wording of the text can also be specified, for example: the Masoretic Text is the canonical text for Judaism.
The canons are usually considered closed (i.e., books cannot be added or removed). The closure of the canon reflects a belief that public revelation has ended and thus the inspired texts may be gathered into a complete and authoritative canon. By contrast, an open canon permits the addition of additional books through the process of continuous revelation.
BIGOTRY – is the state of mind of a bigot: someone who, as a result of their prejudices, treats other people with hatred, contempt, or intolerance on the basis of a person's ethnicity, religion, national origin, gender, sexual orientation, disability, socioeconomic status, or other characteristics.
BISHOP – is an ordained member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. The office of bishop is one of the three ordained offices within Christianity, the other two being those of priest and deacon.
BLASPHEMY – is the act of insulting or showing contempt or lack of reverence for a religious deity, irreverence towards religious or holy persons or things, or toward something considered sacred or inviolable. Some countries have laws to punish religious blasphemy, while others have laws that allow those who are offended by blasphemy to punish blasphemers. Those laws may condone penalties or retaliation for blasphemy under the labels of blasphemous libel, expression of opposition, or "villification," of religion or of some religious practices, religious insult, or hate speech.
BOOK OF COMMON PRAYER (BCP) – is the common title of a number of prayer books of the Church of England and of other Anglican churches, used throughout the Anglican Communion. The first book, published in 1549 (Church of England 1957), in the reign of Edward VI, was a product of the English Reformation following the break with Rome. Prayer books, unlike books of prayers, contain the words of structured (or liturgical) (see liturgy) services of worship.
BOOK OF LIFE – This is the Book that is opened at the Great White Throne Judgment in which the names of all those who responded to God's call of salvation are written, guaranteeing them a place in heaven. Those not found in this Book are to be cast into the Lake of Fire (Exodus 32:32, 33; Psalm 69:28; Luke 10:20; Philippians 4:3; Revelation 3:5; 13:8; 20:12, 15; 21:27).
BOOK OF REMEMBRANCE – This is another Book that is opened at the Great White Throne Judgment in which God recorded the deeds of people on earth (Malachi 3:16). God knows our hearts (Jeremiah 17:10; Matthew 15:19). God's books are totally accurate because He sees every move one makes (2 Chronicles 16:9; Hebrews 4:13).
BOOK, The – The book is actually a scroll enclosed with seven seals. It is the title deed to the earth and its subject is redemption. The Lamb of God (John 1:29), who earned the right by redemption, is the only One worthy to open the seals on the book.
BOOK, THE LITTLE – The “little book” that John is commanded to take and eat is either all or a portion of the Word of God dealing with the judgments. The message John is about to share is bittersweet. Devouring God's message of salvation is very sweet (Jeremiah 15:16; Psalm 119:103; Revelation 10:10). Yet, as it is assimilated and judgments are experienced, it becomes bitter.
BOTTOMLESS PIT – This term, (Greek rendering, “pit of the abyss”) is found nine times in the New Testament. In each case it is a place to restrain or hold certain beings which have come under judgment of God (Luke 8:31). It will be the holding place of Satan during the Millennium (Revelation 20:1-3).
BOWLES – (Also referred to as Vials) A total of 21 judgments are unleashed upon the earth during the Tribulation Hour. The bowls contain seven of these (Revelation 16) (See also Judgements).
BREASTPLATE – (Hoshen/Choshen is a Hebrew word usually translated as breastplate) a piece of armor for the breast. In ancient times, an embroidered cloth worn on the breast of the Jewish high priest: it was set with twelve different jewels representing the twelve tribes of Israel.Breastplate
The front part of the Breastplate was doubled forming a pouch in which was held the Urim and Thummin (see URIM) which were used for judgment. It was also bordered by gold which represents the divine nature, presence, and faith of God. (Note that the border of The Table of Shewbread, the Golden Altar, and the Ark of the covenant is also made of gold.)
BRIDE OF CHRIST – The Church is represented as a chaste virgin (2 Corinthians 11:2). According to marriage customs explained in biblical texts, the Church (the Bride), is now in the betrothal stage, promised to Jesus Christ. As His fiancee, He wants us to live holy lives. The Church, or Bride, is to be clothed in fine, white linen (Revelation 19:7,8). Her wedding gown will actually be composed of righteous deeds she (the believers) performed while on earth. Her wedding takes place in heaven, but the Marriage Supper occurs on earth. At the hour when Christ returns to earth with His Bride,
a 1,000-year honeymoon begins.
BRIDEGROOM – The Lord Jesus himself is the Bridegroom (Ephesians 5:25-33).
CANON LAW – is the body of laws and regulations made by or adopted by ecclesiastical authority, for the government of the Christian organization and its members. It is the internal ecclesiastical law governing the Anglican Communion of churches the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern and Oriental Orthodox churches. The way that such church law is legislated, interpreted and at times adjudicated varies widely among these three bodies of churches. In all three traditions, a canon was initially a rule adopted by a council (From Greek kanon, Hebrew kaneh, for rule, standard, or measure); these canons formed the foundation of canon law.
CANTICLE – A canticle (from the Latin canticulum, a diminutive of canticum, song) is a hymn (strictly excluding the Psalms) taken from the Bible. The term is often expanded to include ancient non-biblical hymns such as the Te Deum and certain psalms used liturgically.
CANTOR – The Latin word for singer, e.g. the main singer of a cantus. Cantor (church), an ecclesiastical officer leading liturgical music in several branches of the Christian church.
CASSOCK –  an item of clerical clothing, is a long, close – fitting, ankle – length robe worn by clerics of the Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Anglican Church, and some clerics of the Reformed, and Lutheran churches. The cassock derives historically from the tunic that was formerly worn underneath the toga in classical antiquity. The word cassock probably comes from the word “casaque” which means cloak; or cassaca, which means white. In older days, it was known in Latin as vestis talaris.

CATECHISM – Greek: from kata = "down" + echein = "to sound", literally "to sound down" (into the ears), i.e. to indoctrinate) is a summary or exposition of doctrine, traditionally used in Christian religious teaching from New Testament times to the present. Catechisms are doctrinal manuals often in the form of questions followed by answers to be memorized, a format that has been used in non-religious or secular contexts as well.
CATECHIST – is one who engages in such religious instruction. Typically, it is a lay minister trained in the art of catechesis. It might also be a pastor or priest, religious teacher, or other individuals in church roles (including a deacon, religious brother or sister, or nun). The primary catechists for children are their parents or communities. A catechumen is one who receives catechetical instruction.
CATHOLIC – is an adjective derived from the Greek adjective 'katholikos', meaning “general; universal.”
CE – CE usually stands for "Common Era." AD is an abbreviation for "Anno Domini" in Latin or "the year of the Lord" in English. Both measure the number of years since the approximate birthday of Yeshua of Nazareth (Jesus Christ) a little over two millennia ago. CE and AD have the same value. That is 1 CE = 1 AD, and 2011 CE = 2011 AD. The word "common" simply means that it is based on the most frequently used calendar system: the Gregorian Calendar. Many people assume that Yeshua/Jesus was born at the end of 1 BCE. However, most theologians and religious historians estimate from evidence within the Bible that he was born in the fall of a year, sometime between 7 and 4 BCE. We have seen estimates as late as 4 CE and as early as the second century BCE. Of course, one has the option of interpreting the letter "C" in CE and BCE as referring to "Christian" or "Christ's," in place of "common." "CE" then becomes "Christian Era." "BCE" becomes "Before the Christian Era."
CELIBATE – [Latin caelibtus, from caelebs, caelib-, unmarried.] One who abstains from sexual intercourse, especially by reason of religious vows. One who is unmarried. Usage Note: Historically, celibate means only “unmarried”; its use to mean “abstaining from sexual intercourse” is a 20th-century development.
CENTURION – A centurion (Latin: centurio), also hecatontarch in Greek sources was a professional officer of the Roman army after the Marian reforms of 107 BC. Most centurions commanded 83 men despite the commonly assumed 100, but senior centurions commanded cohorts, or took senior staff roles in their legion. Centuries, or Centuriae, means tribe or company. Theoretically, this word traces its roots to centum which is latin for one-hundred, but that connection is widely disputed or disregarded.
CHERUB – Cherubs are described as winged beings. The biblical prophet Ezekiel describes the cherubim as a tetrad of living creatures, each having four faces: of a lion, an ox, a griffin vulture, and a man. They are said to have the stature and hands of a man, the feet of a calf, and four wings. Two of the wings extended upward, meeting above and sustaining the throne of God; while the other two stretched downward and covered the creatures themselves. Cherubs are mentioned in the Hebrew Bible in the Torah (five books of Moses), the Book of Ezekiel, and the Book of Isaiah. In the Christian New Testament Cherubs are mentioned in the Book of Revelation, 1 Kings, 2 Kings, 1 Chronicles, and 2 Chronicles mainly in the construction of the House of God.
CHERUBIM - CHERUBIMS - CHERUBS –  are plurals of Cherub.
CHRIST – is the English term for the Greek (Khristós) meaning “the anointed one”. It is a translation of the Hebrew (Maš?ah), usually transliterated into English as Messiah. The word is often misunderstood to be the surname of Jesus due to the numerous mentions of Jesus Christ in the Christian Bible. The word is in fact used as a title, hence its common reciprocal use Christ Jesus, meaning “Jesus The Anointed One”, or “Jesus The Messiah”. Followers of Jesus became known as Christians because they believed that Jesus was the Christ, or Messiah, prophesied about in the Tanakh (which Christians term the Old Testament). The majority of Jews reject this claim and are still waiting for Christ to come. Most Christians now wait for the Second Coming of Christ when they believe he will fulfill the rest of the Messianic prophecy.
CHRISTOPHANY – A Christophany is an appearance of the preincarnate Christ in the Old Testament, or after his ascension. (A Christophany is thus a special case of a theophany.) The appearance is an “alleged” one because Jews do not typically agree with such a Christian interpretation of Jewish scriptures. Christophanies may include instances where no expressly Messianic title is given to a figure; for example, “the Angel of the LORD” is construed by some as a Christophany. Consequently, identification of a given incident as a Christophany, as opposed to a vision of an angel, is a matter of debate among biblical commentators. The Hebrew word here is “malach”, and this means, "one sent" or "messenger". So this is not necessarily referring to some winged creature.
CHRISTMAS – is an annual holiday that celebrates the birth of Jesus Christ. It refers both to the day celebrating the birth, as well as to the season which that day inaugurates, which concludes with the Feast of the Epiphany. The date of the celebration is traditional, and is not considered to be His actual date of birth.
CHURCH – is an association of people with a common set of religious beliefs, respectively their place of worship. It is a building used for prayer, worship, or other public religious services, usually referring specifically to those for Christian worship.
CHURCHES AGE  – (see Age of Grace)
CHURCHES, Seven – The letters to the seven churches may have a number of applications. First, they are sent to seven literal, local churches (Revelation 1:11). Second, they are letters to seven individuals within the churches. Third, they are messages applicable to all churches in all ages, for they picture seven periods or stages of church history. The following is a list of these churches (church ages also) and their main weakness (the Lord begins by commending each assembly for whatever good He can find in them before scolding them):
  1. Ephesus—lax in their Judgment of False Prophets
  2. Smyrna—fearful
  3. Pergamos—became worldly and embraced false doctrines
  4. Thyatira—followed the teachings of Jezebel
  5. Sardis — dead orthodoxy
  6. Philadelphia — warned to be faithful or lose their reward
  7. Laodiceans—lukewarm
CHURCH OF ENGLAND – is the officially established Christian church in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communion's thirty-eight independent national churches. The Church of England considers itself to be both Catholic and reformed: Reformed insofar as many of the principles of the early Protestant reformers as well as the subsequent Protestant Reformation have influenced it via the English Reformation and also insofar as it does not accept Papal supremacy or the Counter-Reformation.
CIRCA – Circa (often abbreviated c., ca., ca or cca. and sometimes italicized to show it is Latin) means “in approximately” (it literally means “around”), referring to a date. It is widely used in genealogy and historical writing, when the dates of events are approximately known. When used in date ranges, a circa is applied before each approximate date, while dates without a circa immediately preceding them are generally assumed to be known with certainty.
CLERGY – is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. The term comes from Greek kleros (a lot, that which is assigned by lot (allotment) or metaphorically, heritage). Depending on the religion, clergy usually take care of the ritual aspects of the religious life, teach or otherwise help in spreading the religion's doctrine and practices. They often deal with life-cycle events such as childbirth, baptism, circumcision, coming of age ceremonies, marriage, and death.
COLLECT – In Christian liturgy, a collect is both a liturgical action and a short, general prayer. In the Middle Ages, the prayer was referred to in Latin as collectio, but in the more ancient sources, as oratio. Traditionally, the liturgical collect was a dialog between the celebrant and the people. It followed a hymn of praise after the opening of the service, with a greeting by the celebrant “The Lord be with you”, to which the people respond “And also with you” or “And with your spirit.” The celebrant invites all to pray with “Let us pray”. In the more ancient practice, an invitation to kneel was given, and the people spend some short time in silent prayer, after which they were invited to stand. Then, the celebrant concluded the time of prayer by “collecting” their prayers in a unified petition of a general form, referred to as a collect.
CONFIRMATION – Confirmation is a process, a chance to take on for yourself the promises that were made for you at your baptism. If you aren't prepared to say these things for yourself, then you shouldn't be being confirmed.
CONSECRATION – is the solemn dedication to a special purpose or service, usually religious. The word “consecration” literally means “to associate with the sacred”. Persons, places, or things can be consecrated, and the term is used in various ways by different groups. A synonym for consecration is to sanctify. An antonym is desecrate. cope
COPE – a large, capelike vestment worn by priests at certain ceremonies. Covers like a canopy. The cope (Known in Latin as pluviale ‘rain coat’ or cappa ‘cape’) is a liturgical vestment, which may conveniently be described as a very long mantle or cloak, open in front and fastened at the breast with a band or clasp. It may be of any liturgical colour. A cope may be worn by any rank of the clergy and as well by lay ministers in certain circumstances. If worn by a bishop it should be accompanied by a mitre. The often highly ornamented clasp is called a morse.
COPTIC or Coptic Egyptian – is the final stage of the Egyptian language, a northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Egypt until at least the 17th century. Egyptian began to be written using the Greek alphabet in the 1st century. The new writing system became the Coptic script, an adapted Greek alphabet with the addition of six to seven signs from the demotic script to represent Egyptian sounds the Greek language did not have. Several distinct Coptic dialects are identified, the most prominent of which are Sahidic and Bohairic.
CORONATION – A coronation is a ceremony marking the investiture of a monarch or their consort with regal power, specifically involving the placement of a crown upon his or her head, and the presentation of other items of regalia. This rite may also include the taking of a special vow, acts of homage by the new ruler's subjects, and/or performance of other ritual deeds of special significance to a given nation.
COVENANT – A Covenant is a divinely initiated contract which God makes with man in which God obligates himself to the parties named in the contract. A Covenant may be unconditional (God says, “I will...”), or conditional (God says, “I will, if you will...”).
It is important to note the difference.
CRECHE – (kreif) (is the nativity scene or also known as a manger scene, or crib) is a depiction of the birth of Jesus as described in the gospels of Matthew and Luke. Nativity scenes exhibit figures representing the infant Jesus, his mother Mary, and Joseph. Other characters from the nativity story such as shepherds, the Magi, and angels may be displayed near the manger in a barn (or cave) intended to accommodate farm animals. A donkey and an ox are typically depicted in the scene, as well as camels belonging to the Magi.
CROWNS – (Rewards) Quality works, performed for the glory of God to win the souls of men when tested and found genuine, will earn crowns for the faithful for all eternity. They are likened to gold, silver, and precious stones (1 Corinthians 3:12-15). Eternal life is freely bestowed upon all who believe as a gift apart from works (Romans 6:23), and cannot be forfeited, but crowns can be earned and lost, accumulated and liquidated. At the Judgment Seat of Christ, the Lord Jesus Christ will present a number of “crowns” for specific service:
The Watcher's Crown (a Grown of Righteousness), given to all who longingly and desiringly watch for Christ's return (2 Timothy 4:8).
The Runner's Crown (an Incorruptible Crown); for all who strive for the mastery by keeping bodily appetites under control and being temperate in all things (1 Corinthians 9:24-27).
The Shepherd's Crown (a Crown of Glory) reserved for faithful ministers (1 Peter 5:1-4).
The Soulwinner's Crown (a Crown of Rejoicing), for those who bring others to the Saviour
(1 Thessalonians 2:19; Psalm 126:5,6; Luke 15:5,6, 7,10).
The Sufferer's Crown (a Crown of Life), for those who have suffered for the sake of Christ and the gospel (James 1:12; Matthew 5:10-12). It is also given to those who are faithful unto the end (Revelation 2:10).
CRUCIFIXION – is an ancient method of painful execution in which the condemned person is tied or nailed to a large wooden cross (of various shapes) and left to hang until dead. The term comes from the Latin crucifixio (“fixed to a cross”, from the prefix cruci-, “cross”, + verb figere, “fix or bind fast”. Crucifixion was in use particularly among the Persians, Seleucids, Carthaginians, and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. In the year 337, Emperor Constantine I abolished it in the Roman Empire, out of veneration for Jesus Christ, the most famous victim of crucifixion.
CUBIT – A Measurement. Hebrews `ammah; i.e., “mother of the arm,” the fore-arm, is a word derived from the Latin cubitus, the lower arm. It is difficult to determine the exact length of this measure, from the uncertainty whether it included the entire length from the elbow to the tip of the longest finger, or only from the elbow to the root of the hand at the wrist. The probability is that the longer was the original cubit. The common computation as to the length of the cubit makes it 20.24 inches for the ordinary cubit, and 21.888 inches for the sacred one. This is the same as the Egyptian measurements.
Damascus – is the capital of Syria and claims to be the oldest continuously inhabited city in the world. According to the New Testament, the Apostle Paul was converted on the Road to Damascus. In the three accounts (Acts 9:1-20, 22:1-22, 26:1-24), he is described as being led by those he was traveling with, blinded by the light, to Damascus where his sight was restored by a disciple called Ananias (who, according to the Catholic Encyclopedia, is thought to have been the first Bishop of Damascus) then he was baptized.
DAY OF ATONEMENT – According to the Biblical calendar, the tenth day of the seventh month (Tishri) is the Day of Atonement. Jews call it Yom Kippur. In Hebrew Yom means day, (marked from sunset to sunset, as instructed by God), and Kippur means to pardon, or condone. The word atonement carries the meaning to English-speaking people. It means to make amends or to reconcile – to become “at one.” The observance of the Day of Atonement originates all the way to the time of Moses: And The Lord said to Moses, “On the tenth day of this seventh month is the day of atonement; it shall be for you a time of holy convocation, and you shall afflict yourselves [i.e. fast] and present an offering by fire to The Lord. And you shall do no work on this same day; for it is a day of atonement, to make atonement for you before The Lord your God.” (Leviticus 23:26-28 RSV) The Lord commanded the Day of Atonement as a solemn annual observance of the Israelites.
It's unique in that it's the only of the annual God-commanded Biblical Holy Days in which fasting was required. The fast was such a strict requirement that anyone who failed to do so would be cut off from the community.
DEACON – is a role in the Christian Church which is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions. In many traditions, the diaconate is a clerical office; in others, it is for laity.
DEAD SEA SCROLLS – are a collection of 972 texts from the Hebrew Bible and extra-biblical documents found between 1947 and 1956 on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea, from which they derive their name. They were specifically located at Khirbet Qumran in the British Mandate for Palestine, in what is now named the West Bank.
DECALOUGE – (Greek deka, ten and logos, word). See the Ten Commandments.
DEITY – is a postulated preternatural or supernatural being, who is always of significant power, worshipped, thought holy, divine, or sacred, held in high regard, or respected by human beings.
DEMONS – The world is experiencing initial preparations for a demonic invasion as Satan and his cohorts come to wreak havoc (Revelation 12:9). A description of some of these demons is presented in Revelation 9: 7-8 (Examples are Murder, Drug Addiction, Sex and Burglary).
DEUTEROCANONICAL books – is a term used since the sixteenth century in the Catholic Church and Eastern Christianity to describe certain books and passages of the Christian Old Testament that are not part of the Hebrew Bible. The term is used in contrast to the protocanonical books, which are contained in the Hebrew Bible. This distinction had previously contributed to debate in the early Church about whether they should be read in the churches and thus be classified as canonical texts. The Deuterocanonical books are considered canonical by Roman Catholics, but are considered non-canonical by most Protestants. The word deuterocanonical comes from the Greek meaning 'belonging to the second canon' and indicates doubt about the inclusion of these books in the canon by some of the early churches.
DEUTERONOMY –  “second law,” refers to the fifth book's recapitulation of the commandments reviewed by Moses before his death.
DIADEM – a type of crown, specifically an ornamental headband worn by Eastern monarchs and others as a badge of royalty. The word derives from the Greek (di?dema), “band” or “fillet”, from (diadéo), “I bind round”, or “I fasten”. The term originally referred to the embroidered white silk ribbon, ending in a knot and two fringed strips often draped over the shoulders, that surrounded the head of the king to denote his authority. A diadem is also a jeweled ornament in the shape of a half crown, worn by women and placed over the forehead (in this sense, also called tiara).
DIASPORA – A diaspora is a transnational community that defined itself as a singular ethnic group based upon its shared identity. Diasporas result from historical emigration from an original homeland. In modern cases, this migration can be historically documented, and the diaspora associated with a certain territory. Whether this territory is in fact the homeland of a specific ethnic group, is a political matter.
DIOCESE –  a diocese is an administrative territorial unit administered by a bishop, hence also referred to as a bishopric or Episcopal Area. The diocese is the key unit of authority in the form of church governance known as episcopal polity. It is divided into parishes.
a : A general state or ordering of things; specifically : a system of revealed commands and promises regulating human affairs.
b : a particular arrangement or provision especially of providence or nature.
c : An exemption from a law or from an impediment, vow, or oath.
d : a formal authorization.
DISPENSATIONALISM – A system of theology that, among other things, recognizes three basic tenets: 1. There is a theological distinction between Israel and the Church
2. Scripture is to be interpreted consistently by the literal method unless the text itself mentions a figurative or symbolic interpretation.
3. The underlying purpose of God in the world is His glory One can be a Dispensationalist and hold differing views concerning the number of dispensations, but the following tenets are believed by all Dispensationalists.
DISPENSATIONS – Divisions of time in which mankind responds to a specific revelation of the will of God. A literal, dispensational interpretation of Gods Word “rightly dividing” it (2 Timothy 2:15).
There are seven dispensations:
1. Innocence — Creation to the fall (Genesis 1:27; 3:24)
2. Conscience — Beginning of civilization to the Flood (Genesis 4:1; 8:14)
3. Human Government — Exit from the Ark to the Tower of Babel (Genesis 8:15; 11:32)
4. Promise — Call of Abraham to Egyptian bondage (Genesis 12:1; Exodus 19:2)
5. Law — Ten Commandments to the end of the Gospels (Exodus 19:3; Acts 1)
6. Grace — Pentecost to end of the Tribulation (Acts 2; Revelation 19:21)
7. Millennium (Kingdom) — Imprisonment of Satan to the Great White Throne (Revelation 20:1; 22:7).
DIVINE – (of or pertaining to a god): deific, godlike, godly – (eternal, holy): hallowed, holy, sacred. (of superhuman or surpassing excellence): supreme, ultimate – (beautiful, heavenly): beautiful, delightful, exquisite, heavenly, lovely, magnificent, marvellous/marvelous, splendid, wonderful.
DIVINATION – (from Latin divinare “to foresee, to be inspired by a god”, related to divinus, divine) is the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of a standardized process or ritual. Diviners ascertain their interpretations of how a querent should proceed by reading signs, events, or omens, or through alleged contact with a supernatural agency. Divination can be seen as a systematic method with which to organize what appear to be disjointed, random facets of existence such that they provide insight into a problem at hand. If a distinction is to be made between divination and fortune-telling, divination has a formal or ritual and often social character, usually in a religious context, as seen in traditional African medicine; while fortune-telling is a more everyday practice for personal purposes. Particular divination methods vary by culture and religion.
DOGMA – is the established belief or doctrine held by a religion, ideology or any kind of organization: it is authoritative and not to be disputed, doubted, or diverged from. The term derives from Greek “that which seems to one, opinion or belief” and that from (dokeo), “to think, to suppose, to imagine”. The plural is either dogmas or dogmata. For most of Christianity, the dogmata are contained in the Nicene Creed and the canon laws of two, three, or seven ecumenical councils.
EASTER – is the most important religious feast in the Christian liturgical year. Christians celebrate this day in observance of their belief that Jesus rose from the dead on the third day after His crucifixion, now estimated to have taken place between the years AD 26 and AD 36. Traditionally the Easter Season lasted for the forty days from Easter Day until Ascension Day but now officially lasts for the fifty days until Pentecost. The first week of the Easter Season is known as Easter Week or the Octave of Easter. Easter also marks the end of Lent, a season of prayer and penance.
EBIONITES – The Ebionites were a Jewish-Christian sect that insisted on the necessity of following Jewish religious law and rites. They regarded Jesus as the Messiah but not as divine. The Ebionites used only the Jewish Gospels, revered James the Just as the head of the Jerusalem Church and rejected Paul of Tarsus as an apostate towards the Law. Their name suggests that they placed a special value on evangelical counsels about voluntary poverty.
ECCLESIOLOGY –  is the study of doctrine pertaining to the Church itself as a community or organic entity and with the understanding of what the “church” is – ie., its role in salvation, its origin, its relationship to the historical Christ, its discipline, its destiny and its leadership. It is, therefore, the study of the Church as a thing in itself, and of the Church's self-understanding of its mission and role.
ECUMENICAL – [ek-yoo-men-i-kuhl] pertaining to the whole Christian church; of or pertaining to a movement (ecumenical movement), esp. among Protestant groups since the 1800s, aimed at achieving universal Christian unity and church union through international interdenominational organizations cooperating on matters of mutual concern.
ECUMENISM – (also Ecumenism, oecumenism or even eucumenism) now mainly refers to initiatives aimed at greater religious unity or cooperation. In its broadest sense, this unity or cooperation may refer to a worldwide religious unity; by the advocation of a greater sense of shared spirituality across the three Abrahamic faiths of Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Most commonly, however, ecumenism is used in a more narrow meaning; referring to a greater cooperation among different religious denominations of a single one of these faiths.
Elijah – (Hebrew: Eliyahu; Arabic: Ilyas), whose name (El-i Yahu) means “Yah is my God,” was a prophet in Israel in the 9th century BC. He appears in the Hebrew Bible, Talmud, Mishnah, New Testament, and the Qur'an. According to the Books of Kings, Elijah raised the dead, brought fire down from the sky, and ascended into heaven in a whirlwind (accompanied by chariots, not in one).
In the Book of Malachi, Elijah's return is prophesied “before the coming of the great and terrible day of the Lord,” making him a harbinger of the Messiah and the eschaton in various faiths that revere the Hebrew Bible. In Judaism, Elijah's name is invoked at the weekly Havdalah ritual that marks the end of Shabbat, and Elijah is invoked in other Jewish customs, among them the Passover seder and the Brit milah (ritual circumcision). He appears in numerous stories and references in the Haggadah and rabbinic literature, including the Babylonian Talmud. In Christianity, the New Testament describes how both Jesus and John the Baptist are compared with Elijah, and on some occasions, thought by some to be manifestations of Elijah, and Elijah appears with Moses during the Transfiguration of Jesus.
ELOHIM – is a Hebrew word which expresses concepts of divinity or deity, notably used as a name of God in Judaism. It is apparently related to the Northwest Semitic word El “god”. Jewish High Priest wearing the the ephod.
EMMANUAL – means, “God is with us.”
EPHOD – A passage in the Book of Exodus describes the Ephod as an elaborate garment worn by the high priest, and upon which the Hoshen (breastplate), containing Urim and Thummim, rested. According to this description, the Ephod was woven out of gold, blue, purple, and scarlet threads, was made of fine linen, and was embroidered “with skillful work” in gold thread; each of the textures was combined in six threads with a seventh of gold leaf, making twenty-eight threads to the texture in total. The Biblical description continues without describing the shape or length of the ephod, except by stating that it was held together by a girdle, and had two shoulder straps which were fastened to the front of the ephod by golden rings, to which the breastplate was attached by golden chains; from this description it appears to have been something like a minimalist apron or a skirt with braces. The biblical description also adds that there were two engraved gems over the shoulder straps (like epaulettes), made from shoham (thought by scholars to mean Malachite and in the King James Version is translated as Onyx).
Ephraim – (Hebrew: Standard Efr?yim Tiberian) was, according to the Book of Genesis, the second son of Joseph and Asenath. Asenath was an Egyptian woman whom Pharaoh gave to Joseph as wife, and the daughter of Potipherah, a priest of On. (Genesis 41:50-52) Ephraim was born in Egypt before the arrival of the children of Israel from Canaan. (Genesis 48:5) Ephraim had sons: Shuthelah, Beker, and Tahan.
EPIPHANY – (Greek for “the toast of destruction” or “revelation”), is a Christian feast day which celebrates the “shining forth” or revelation of God in human form in the person of Jesus Christ. The feast falls on January 6. Western Christians commemorate the visitation of the Magi to the child Jesus on this day, i.e., His manifestation to the Gentiles. Eastern Christians commemorate the baptism of Jesus in the Jordan River, His manifestation as the Son of God to the world. It is also called Theophany (“manifestation of God”).
EPISCOPAL – in principle means “of bishops”, from the Latin for bishop, episcopus. The term Episcopal is in several churches considered preferable to the term Anglican,, which originates in ecclesia anglicana, a Medieval Latin phrase dating to at least 1246 meaning “the English Church”.
EPISTEMOLOGY – (from Greek – episteme-, “knowledge, science” + “logos”) or theory of knowledge is the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope (limitations) of knowledge.
It addresses the questions: 1. What is knowledge? 2. How is knowledge acquired?
3. What do people know? 4. How do we know what we know?
EPISTLE – An epistle (Greek epistole, “letter”) is a writing directed or sent to a person or group of persons, usually a letter and a very formal, often didactic and elegant one. The letters in the New Testament from Apostles to Christians are usually referred to as epistles; those traditionally from Paul are known as Pauline epistles and the others as Catholic or general epistles.
The Battle River Parish sends out an epistle 4-5 times a year to its parishioners.
EPITOME  – An epitome (Greek from epitemnein "to cut short") is a summary or miniature form; an instance that represents a larger reality, also used as a synonym for embodiment. Epitomacy represents, "to the degree of." Many documents from the Ancient Greek and Roman worlds survive now only "in epitome", referring to the practice of some later authors (epitomators) who wrote distilled versions of larger works now lost. Some writers attempted to convey the stance and spirit of the original, while others added further details or anecdotes regarding the general subject. As with all secondary historical sources, a different bias not present in the original may creep in.
ESCHATOLOGY  – is the study of “last things” or prophecy. It has been observed that approximately 25 percent of the Bible deals with prophetic truth. That means that at the time of its writing, one-fourth of scripture was pre-written history. Biblical Eschatology is the capstone of systematic theology.
ESSENES  – (in Modern but not in Ancient Hebrew: Isiyim; Greek: Essenoi, Essaioi, Ossaioi) were a Jewish sect that flourished from the 2nd century BCE to the 1st century CE which some scholars claim seceded from the Zadokite priests. Being much fewer in number than the Pharisees and the Sadducees (the other two major sects at the time), the Essenes lived in various cities but congregated in communal life dedicated to asceticism, voluntary poverty, daily immersion, and abstinence from worldly pleasures, including (for some groups) marriage. Many separate but related religious groups of that era shared similar mystic, eschatological, messianic, and ascetic beliefs. These groups are collectively referred to by various scholars as the "Essenes." Josephus records that Essenes existed in large numbers, and thousands lived throughout Roman Judæa.
ETERNAL  – The Eternal may refer to: Eternity, an infinite amount of time, or a timeless state, Immortality or eternal life.
ETHNORELIGIOUS  – (or ethno-religious group) is an ethnic group of people whose members are also unified by a common religious background. Ethnoreligious communities define their ethnic identity neither exclusively by ancestral heritage nor simply by religious affiliation, but often through a combination of both (a long shared history; a cultural tradition of its own; either a common geographical origin, or descent from a small number of common ancestors; a common language, not necessarily peculiar to the group; a common literature peculiar to the group; a common religion different from that of neighbouring groups; being a minority or being an oppressed or a dominant group within a larger community).
EUCHARIST – also called Holy Communion or Lord's Supper and other names, is one of the two most important Christian sacraments. Almost every Christian denomination celebrates in some form this rite or ritual of worship and remembrance, which Christians generally believe Jesus Christ instituted at His last meal with His disciples before being turned over to His executioners.
A common meal of bread and wine beginning with a prayer and blessing.
EVANGALISM – is the Christian practice of preaching the Truth of Jesus to both Christians and non-Christians. The intention of most evangelism is to effect Eternal Salvation to those who have not heard of or denied the One True God.
EXORCIST –  an exorcist is a person who is believed to be able to cast out the devil or other demons. A priest, a nun, a monk, a healer, a shaman or other specially prepared or instructed person can be an exorcist. An exorcist is a person who performs the ridding of demons or other supernatural beings who are alleged to have possessed a person, or (sometimes) a building or even an object.
Ezekiel – a prophet from the sixth-century
BC. His name (Hb. Yekhezqe’l) means “God strengthens” or “May God strengthen”. Ezekiel lived out his prophetic career among the community of exiled Judeans in Babylon. He belonged to the priestly class and was married (see Ezk. 24:15-24), but it is doubtful whether he had any children. The Book of Ezekiel is the 26th book of the Bible.
FASTING – is primarily the act of willingly abstaining from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time. A fast may be total or partial concerning that from which one fasts, and may be prolonged or intermittent as to the period of fasting. Fasting practices may preclude sexual activity as well as food, in addition to refraining from eating certain types or groups of foods; for example, one might refrain from eating meat. A complete fast in its traditional definition is abstinence of all food and liquids.
FEAST OF TABERNACLES – “On the fifteenth day of the seventh month, when you have gathered in the produce of the land, you shall keep the feast of The Lord seven days; on the first day shall be a solemn rest, and on the eighth day shall be a solemn rest. And you shall take on the first day the fruit of goodly trees, branches of palm trees, and boughs of leafy trees, and willows of the brook; and you shall rejoice before The Lord your God seven days. You shall keep it as a feast to The Lord seven days in the year; it is a statute for ever throughout your generations; you shall keep it in the seventh month. You shall dwell in booths for seven days; all that are native in Israel shall dwell in booths, that your generations may know that I made the people of Israel dwell in booths when I brought them out of the land of Egypt: I am The Lord your God.” (Leviticus 23:39-43 RSV)
According to the Biblical calendar, the fifteenth day of the seventh month (Tishri) is the beginning of a Holy festival. It's known variously as the Feast of Tabernacles or Festival of Tabernacles, the Feast of Ingathering or Festival of Ingathering, the Feast of Booths or Festival of Booths, Succoth or Sukkot.
FEAST OF TRUMPETS / Rosh HaShanna  – In the Christian world, Rosh Hashanah is known as The Feast Of Trumpets. Many Christians observe this festival for its Christian prophetic application – The Return Of Jesus Christ and the first resurrection. Just as Christ, the Lamb of God, was sacrificed at Passover (in spring, in the northern hemisphere), for which The Lord instituted Passover to symbolize and foreshadow, it is very likely that His return will be at the time of the Feast of Trumpets (in autumn, in the northern hemisphere), for which The Lord instituted the Feast of Trumpets to symbolize and foreshadow. “Lo! I tell you a mystery.
We shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed, in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised imperishable, and we shall be changed. For this perishable nature must put on the imperishable, and this mortal nature must put on immortality.” (1 Corinthians 15:51-53 RSV) “For this we declare to you by the word of The Lord, that we who are alive, who are left until the coming of The Lord, shall not precede those who have fallen asleep. For The Lord Himself will descend from heaven with a cry of command, with the archangel's call, and with the sound of the trumpet of God. And the dead in Christ will rise first; then we who are alive, who are left, shall be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet The Lord in the air”
(1 Thessalonians 4:15-17 RSV)
 – The Hebrews were instructed to mark the doorposts of their homes with the blood of a spring lamb and, upon seeing this, the spirit of the Lord passed over these homes, hence the term “Passover”. When Pharaoh freed the Hebrews, it is said that they left in such a hurry that they could not wait for bread to rise. In commemoration, for the duration of Passover no leavened bread is eaten, for which reason it is called “The Festival of the Unleavened Bread”. Matzo (flat unleavened bread) is the primary symbol of the holiday.
FLAIL – is a weapon commonly attributed to the Middle-Ages but for which only a limited amount of historical evidence currently exists for most of this era. There is evidence for the long-handled flail as a weapon of war from Germany and Central Europe in the later Middle Ages. Typically, the weapon is depicted as one (or more) weights attached to a handle with a hinge or chain. Also is an agricultural tool used for threshing to separate grains from their husks.
FONT – A baptismal font is an article of church furniture or a fixture used for the baptism of children and adults. The simplest of these fonts has a pedestal (about 1.5 metres tall) with a holder for a basin of water.

FORNICATION – This word is especially descriptive of the unfaithful works of the false church, the professing, but not possessing, Bride of Christ. This “spiritual fornication” committed between worldly leaders and the Church has continued through the centuries, but under the leadership of the False Prophet, the world church will be at its worst as it practices idolatry, worshipping the image of the world leader, the Antichrist. Also, intercourse between a married man and an unmarried woman was fornication.
GEHENNA – (see Hell) Gehenna refers to the final penitentiary for lost souls.
GENESIS – (Greek: “birth”, “origin”) is the first book of the Bible of Judaism and of Christianity, and the first of five books of the Pentateuch or Torah. It recounts Judeo-Christian beliefs regarding the world from creation to the descent of the children of Israel into Egypt, and contains some of the best-known stories of the Old Testament, including Adam and Eve, Cain and Abel, Noah's Ark, the Tower of Babel, and the biblical patriarchs.
Gentile – The term Gentile (from Latin gentilis, by the French “gentil”, female: “gentille”, meaning of or belonging to a clan or tribe) refers to non-Israelite tribes or nations in English translations of the Bible, most notably the King James Version. It serves as the Latin and subsequently English translation of the Hebrew words (goy) and (nokhri) in the Hebrew Bible and the Greek word (éthne) in the New Testament.
Today, the primary meaning of Gentile is non-Jew.
GOD – is the principal or sole deity in religions and other belief systems that worship one deity. God is most often conceived of as the creator and overseer of the universe. Theologians have ascribed a variety of attributes to the many different conceptions of God. The most common among these include omniscience, omnipotence, omnipresence, omnibenevolence (perfect goodness), divine simplicity, jealousy, and eternal and necessary existence. God has also been conceived as being incorporeal, a personal being, the source of all moral obligation, and the “greatest conceivable existent”.
GOOD FRIDAY – also called Holy Friday or Great Friday, is the Friday preceding Easter Sunday. It commemorates the crucifixion and death of Jesus Christ at Golgotha.
GOSPEL – In Christianity, a gospel (from Old English, “good news”) is generally one of four canonical books of the New Testament that describe the birth, life, ministry, crucifixion, and resurrection of Jesus. These books are the Gospels according to Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, written between 65 and 100 AD. More generally, the term refers to works of a genre of Early Christian literature.   It originally meant the “glad tidings” of redemption.
GREAT COMMISSION (THE) – in Christian tradition, is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to his disciples, that they spread his teachings to all the nations of the world. It has become a tenet in Christian theology emphasizing mission work, evangelism, and baptism. It has been a primary basis for Christian missionary activity. Some Christian denominations believe that the Great Commission and other prophecy was fulfilled in the
apostolic age. The most famous version of the Great Commission is in Matthew 28:16-20, where on a mountain in Galilee Jesus calls on his followers to baptize all nations in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. Matthew also records an earlier lesser commission in 10:5-42, directed only to the children of Israel, undertaken during Jesus' mortal life. In Luke, Jesus says that all people will be called to repentance and tells his disciples to wait in Jerusalem until they become invested with power, which presumably happened at Pentecost. in the Book of Acts. GREAT WHITE THRONE JUDGMENT – This judgment includes all the wicked of all time, resurrected for this hour (John 5:28, 29; Acts 24:15; 1 Corinthians 16:22, 24). The Lord Jesus Christ sits on a throne (Romans 2:16; John6:27; Acts 17:31) and the books (records) are opened. The list of sins judged are found in Revelation 21:8; 22:15; Romans 1:24-32; Corinthians 6:9, 10; and Galatians 5:19-21, and many others named throughout Scripture. At this time, judgment for breaking God's laws must now be administered according to the individual's wicked works.
GREEK ALPHABET – is the script that has been used to write the Greek language since the 8th century BC. It was derived from the earlier Phoenician alphabet, and was in turn the ancestor of numerous other European and Middle Eastern scripts, including Cyrillic and Latin. Apart from its use in writing the Greek language, both in its ancient and its modern forms, the Greek alphabet today also serves as a source of technical symbols and labels in many domains of mathematics, science and other fields.
Greek Alphabet
HADES – was the place where the souls and the spirits of all humans went until the cross. Sheol (Old Testament) and Hades (New Testament) are one and the same. In Sheol or Hades there were two compartments, one for the wicked and the other for the righteous ... one for suffering and the other for comfort (Luke 16:22,23).
HEAVEN – Heaven is often described as a "higher place", the holiest place, a Paradise, in contrast to Hell or the Underworld or the "low places", and universally or conditionally accessible by earthly beings according to various standards of divinity, goodness, piety, faith, or other virtues or right beliefs or simply the Will of God. Some believe in the possibility of a Heaven on Earth in a World to Come. Heaven, is a common religious cosmological or metaphysical term for the physical or transcendent place from which heavenly beings (such as a God, angels, King or Queen of Heaven, Heavenly Father or Heavenly Mother, heavenly saints or venerated ancestors) originate, are enthroned or inhabit. It is commonly believed that heavenly beings can descend to earth or take on earthly flesh and that earthly beings can ascend to Heaven in the afterlife or in exceptional cases enter Heaven alive
HEBREW BIBLE –  is a term referring to the books of the Jewish Bible (Tanakh) as originally written mostly in Biblical Hebrew, with some Biblical Aramaic. It is also called the Hebrew Scriptures. The term closely corresponds to contents of the Jewish Tanakh and the Protestant Old Testament and does not include the deuterocanonical portions of the Roman Catholic or the Anagignoskomena portions of the Eastern Orthodox Old Testaments. The term does not imply naming, numbering or ordering of books, which varies with Biblical canon.
HELL – (See Lake of Fire) Two Greek words translated “hell” in the New Testament are Hades and Gehenna. The temporary holding place or “local jail” is Hades, while Gehenna refers to the final penitentiary for lost souls. The Lake of Fire is usually synonymous with Gehenna. Gehenna differs from Hades also in that Gehenna is a place where there are degrees of suffering. Thus, the final hell will differ for all depending on one's evil deeds and the number of times he rejected Christ (Romans 2:5; Matthew 11:23,24; 23:14) (See Hades, Gehenna).
HEPTATEUCH – first seven books of Bible: the first seven books of the Bible, comprising Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua, and Judges.
HERESY – comes from the Greek hairetikos “able to choose” (haireisthai “to choose”). The term heresy is often perceived as a value judgment and the expression of a view from within an established belief system. Is a controversial or novel change to a system of beliefs, especially a religion, that conflicts with established dogma. It is distinct from apostasy, which is the formal denunciation of one's religion, principles or cause, and blasphemy, which is irreverence toward religion. The founder or leader of a heretical movement is called a heresiarch, while individuals who espouse heresy are known as heretics. Heresiology is the study of heresy.
HIERATIC – refers to a cursive writing system that was used in the provenance of the pharaohs in Egypt and Nubia that developed alongside the hieroglyphic system, to which it is intimately related.
It was primarily written in ink with a reed brush on papyrus, allowing scribes to write quickly without resorting to the time-consuming hieroglyphs. In the 2nd century AD, the term hieratic was first used by Saint Clement of Alexandria. It derives from the Greek (grammata hieratika; literally "priestly writing"), as at that time hieratic was used only for religious texts, as had been the case for the previous thousand years.
HOLOCAUST – The word “holocaust” refers to the violent deaths of a large number of people.
The first holocaust was carried out in 70 A.D. when Titus and his army entered Jerusalem, cut down all the trees, and carried out hundreds of executions. Josephus, the historian, says that 1,100,000 Jews were slain and thousands taken into captivity. The Temple was burned and even the stones were pried apart to retrieve precious metals that had melted between them.
Adolf Hitler's holocaust during World War II, as part of a program of deliberate extermination, planned and executed by the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazi) regime in Germany, reduced the population of European Jews from 9,739,200 in 1939 to 3,505,130. His death camps and portable killing units had exterminated six million of the Children of Israel by 1945. In the future, midway through the Tribulation period, the alleged peacemaker, Antichrist, will break his covenant or treaty with the Jews and will become their enemy and persecutor. Anti-Semitism will flourish and Israel will experience her final holocaust. It is called the Time of Jacob s Trouble (Jeremiah 30:7).
This will be the worst time in history (Matthew 24:21). It is also called Daniel's Seventieth Week, the Great Tribulation. At this moment in history, the whole world will plunge into its most awful hour and the Jews will be the universal scapegoat (Matthew 24:15-22).
HOLY CITY – This beautiful city, prepared by Christ for His beloved, and promised to John over 2,000 years ago, is also called the New Jerusalem. Its foundations, walls, and gates are described in detail in Revelation 21 and 22 along with its measurements and other lovely attractions. There are mansions there, but no temple because the Lord God has chosen to dwell with men and needs no other dwelling place (Revelation 21:3, 22). The Lamb (Christ) is the very light of it. When that light shines through the brilliancy of the layers of precious stones, all will surely know the “glory of God.” Two other important attractions are the tree of life (last seen in the Garden of Eden) and the river of “the pure water of life” proceeding out of the throne of God. This city, built foursquare, will hover in space and the people on the new earth will live in the light of it (Revelation 21:24). Those living in the Holy City will be able to travel back and forth between the two places effortlessly and miraculously. It is from this heavenly city that David's greater son (Jesus) exerts His messianic rule, in which the Bride reigns, and from which the rewarded Old Testament saints exercise their authority in government. (Dr. J.D. Pentecost)
HOLY ORDERS – In a general sense, the term refers to those people in the Christian tradition who have been ordained or appointed to offices of pastoral leadership in the church. As a more theologically technical term in the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Anglican, Lutheran, Old Catholic, Independent Catholic and Assyrian churches, it is a sacrament or rite
(or both) in which men and women have right to be ordained as bishops, priests or deacons.
HOLY SATURDAY – (Latin: Sabbatum Sanctum), sometimes known as Easter Eve[1] or Black Saturday, is the day after Good Friday. It is the day before Easter and the last day of Holy Week in which Christians prepare for Easter. It commemorates the day that Jesus Christ's body laid in the tomb.
HOLY SPIRIT – This person of the Holy Trinity, also called “the Comforter” by Jesus Christ (John 16:7, 8), came to dwell in believers when Jesus returned to heaven. It is evident that the work of the Holy Spirit is that of conviction and restraint concerning sin in those whose bodies He indwells
(1 Corinthians 6:19). He always glorifies Christ. Believers have a purifying effect upon the world (Matthew 5:13, 14). No wonder the world is so wicked during the Tribulation — the believers are gone in the Rapture and the restraining influence of the Holy Spirit with them (2 Thessalonians 2:1-8).
This must not be interpreted to mean that the Holy Spirit is no longer omnipresent, nor operative during the Tribulation Hour. At this time He will work in and through men as He did in Old Testament times. His particular ministries to the believer in this present age are: baptism into the body of Christ (1 Corinthians 12:12,13), indwelling (1 Corinthians 6:19, 20), sealing (Ephesians 1:13, 4:30), and filling (Ephesians 5:18). During the Tribulation period He will return to working as He did in Old Testament times and will anoint the 144,000 Jewish evangelists for service (Revelation 7:2, 3; Joel 2:28, 29).
HOLY WEEK – (Latin: Hebdomas Sancta or Hebdomas Maior, "Greater Week"; Greek: Hagia kai Megale Hebdomas) in Christianity is the last week of Lent and the week before Easter.
It includes the religious holidays of Palm Sunday, Maundy Thursday (Holy Thursday), Good Friday, and Holy Saturday. It does not include Easter Sunday. In Eastern Orthodox tradition, Holy Week starts on Lazarus Saturday, the day before Palm Sunday. (Easter Sunday, for context, is the first day of the new season of the Great Fifty Days, or Eastertide, there being fifty days from Easter Sunday to Pentecost Sunday.)
HOMAGE – (n.) Special honor or respect; a symbolical acknowledgment made by a feudal tenant to, and in the presence of, his lord, on receiving investiture of fee, or coming to it by succession, that he was his man, or vassal; profession of fealty to a sovereign.
HORNS – denote national powers (Revelation 13:1). The "little horn" is also an other name for Antichrist (Daniel 7:8; 8:9). The little horn arises out of the fourth beast which represents Rome; so it is supposed that the Antichrist will rise out of the revived Roman Empire. This term is also used of Antiochus Epiphanes (Daniel 8-9).
HORSES – The four horsemen of Revelation 6 are:
      1. The white horse whose rider is Antichrist (vs. 29), counterfeits the return of Christ and
          produces a fraudulent peace pact (Revelation 19:11).
      2. The red horse (vs. 4) produces wars and rumors of wars.
          Perhaps Russia (red) might have a part here.
      3. The black horse (vs. 8), produces famine and inflation as the 666 program becomes activated.
      4. The pale horse (vs. 8), the deadliest, produces death and disease with hell following him.
Countless horses will be utilized by the armies of Armageddon as the blood rises to their bridles (Revelation 14:20), and Christ himself will return, mounted on a white horse, followed by His armies also riding white horses (Revelation 19:11-14).
HOSANNA – “Hosanna” (Greek transcription: hosanna) is the cry of praise or adoration shouted in recognition of the Messiahship of Jesus on his entry into Jerusalem, Hosanna! Blessed is the one who comes in the name of the Lord! It is used in the same way in Christian praise. Overall, it seems that “Hosanna” is a cry for salvation; while at the same time is a declaration of praise. Therefore, it may be derived that this plea for help is out of an agreeably positive connotation.
HYMN – A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of praise, adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a deity or deities, or to a prominent figure or personification. The word hymn derives from Greek (hymnos), which means "a song of praise." Collections of hymns are known as hymnals or hymnbooks.
IMAGE of the Beast – The False Prophet will entice mankind to build the greatest statue in history, the image of the Antichrist. This monstrosity will be placed in the Jewish temple. Since the image speaks and is built by mankind, it may well be the ultimate achievement of our present-day computer systems. It is interesting to note that mark of the beast equals 666. Over two thousand years ago, when God told the Apostle John that the end times would produce an image that spoke, it was beyond his comprehension, but today we witness its beginning. Professor Seymour Wolfson has featured a talking robot, whose brain capacity equaled that of one trillion human beings.
IMMINENCY – Imminent is a term, not used in the King James Version, describing the return of Christ at the Rapture as being possible at any moment (Philippians 4:5; Revelation 22:20). The doctrine of imminence is not new (See Rapture). Early church leaders believed it and wrote of it.
(Clement, Cyprian, etc.)
IMMORTALITY – means everlasting, a quality of life which God enjoys by nature (1 Timothy 6:16). Believers, in their glorified bodies, will aslo be free from any deterioration that the power of death works (1 Corinthians 15:53, 54)
INCARNATE  – embodied in flesh; given a bodily, esp. a human, form: refers to the conception and birth of a sentient(with the ability to perceive subjectively) creature (generally a human) who is the material manifestation of an entity or force whose original nature is immaterial. In its religious context the word is used to mean the descent of a divine being or the Supreme Being (God) in human form
on Earth.
INTERCESSION  – Intercession is the act of interceding (intervening or mediating) between two parties. In both Christian and Islamic religious usage, it is a prayer to God on behalf of others. In western forms of Christian worship, intercession forms a distinct form of prayer, alongside Adoration, Confession and Thanksgiving. In public worship, intercession is offered as prayer for the world beyond the immediate vicinity and friendship networks of the church community. As such, it constitutes part of the worshipping community's engagement with otherness, as it expresses christians' solidarity with those who are 'other' than themselves. In so doing, a church both appeals to, and seeks to embody, God's own love for the world.
ISRAELITES –  The Israelites were a Hebrew-speaking people of the Ancient Near East who inhabited the Land of Canaan (the modern day Israel, western Jordan, southern Lebanon and Palestinian Territories) during the monarchic period (11th to 7th centuries BCE). The word "Israelite" derives from the Biblical Hebrew. The ethnonym is attested as early as the 13th century BCE in an Egyptian inscription. The Hebrew Bible etymologizes the name as from yisra "to prevail over" or "to struggle/wrestle with", and el, "God, the divine". The eponymous biblical patriarch of the Israelites is Jacob, who wrestled with a "man" who was not expressly called an angel of God, but who gave him a blessing from God, and renamed him "Israel" because he had "power with God". (Genesis 32:24-32)
INVESTITURE –  from the Latin (preposition in and verb vestire, 'dress' from vestis 'robe') is a rather general term for the formal installation of an incumbent (heir, elect of nominee) in public office, especially by taking possession of its insignia. The term is normally reserved for formal offices of state, aristocracy and church.
JACOB'S Trouble – Jacob is Israel (Jeremiah 30:7; Romans 11:26). This period of time is also called “Daniel's Seventieth Week” (Daniel 9). In history, the first 69 weeks involve Israel (9:24) and it follows that the seventieth or final week must also involve Israel. Chapters 30 and 31 of Jeremiah summarize Israel's endurance in the hour of Tribulation. All Old Testament prophets affirm this truth. In Ezekiel 38,39, seventeen different passages mark Israel as the victim of Gog and Magog's deadliest war. Jacob's trouble is so named because of Jeremiah s prophecy: Alas! for that day is great so that none is like it; it is even the time of Jacob's trouble (Jeremiah 30:7). He was speaking of the seven-year period known as the Tribulation. With the removal of the Church, earth plunges into its most horrendous hour (Matthew 24:21).
JAINISM – Jainism (also called Jain Dharma') is an ancient dharmic religion from India that prescribes a path of non-violence for all forms of living beings in this world. Its philosophy and practice relies mainly on self-effort in progressing the soul on the spiritual ladder to divine consciousness. Any soul which has conquered its own inner enemies and achieved the state of supreme being is called jina (Conqueror or Victor). Jainism is often referred to as Jain Dharma or Shraman Dharma or the religion of Nirgantha by ancient texts. Jainism was revived by a lineage of 24 enlightened ascetics called tirthankaras culminating with Parshva (9th century BCE) and Mahavira (6th century BCE). In the modern world, it is a small but influential religious minority with as many as 4.9 million followers in India, and successful growing immigrant communities in North America, Western Europe, the Far East, Australia and elsewhere.
James (The Epistle of)  – (James the Just) usually referred to simply as James, is a Letter in the New Testament. The author identifies himself as "James, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ." The earliest extant manuscripts of James usually date to the mid-to-late third century. first Bishop of Jerusalem, who died in 62 or 69, was an important figure of the Apostolic Age. He is distinguished from the Apostle James, son of Zebedee by various epithets; he is called James the brother of the Lord by Paul (Galatians 1:19), James the brother of the Lord, surnamed the Just by Hegesippus and others, "James the Righteous", "James of Jerusalem", "James Adelphotheos" and so on. James became the leader of the Christian movement in Jerusalem in the decades after Jesus' death, but like the rest of the early Christians, information about his life is scarce and ambiguous. Apart from a handful of references in the Gospels, the main sources for his life are the Acts of the Apostles, the Pauline epistles, the historian Josephus, and St. Jerome who also quotes the early Christian chronicler Hegesippus. The Epistle of James in the New Testament is traditionally attributed to him, and he is a principal author of the Apostolic Decree of Acts 15.
Jedediah – comes from Yedidya, a Hebrew name meaning "Friend of God" or "beloved of God". In the Bible, Jedidiah was the “blessing" name given by God through prophet Nathan, in infancy to Solomon, King David's second son by Bathsheba.
JERUSALEM – Although its history is one of war and destruction, Jerusalem means “city of peace” or “foundation of peace.” From the siege of David in 1000 B.C. to the Six Day War of 1967, the sounds of battle have been heard as this city has experienced 46 sieges and 32 partial destructions. It has been burned to the ground five times, always rising from the ashes. In the past 50 years, it has been the scene of four wars. It is the site of the most volatile political, religious, and military problems in the entire world.
The Jewish cry for peace in Jerusalem is sincere, finding its roots in the promise given through Moses (Leviticus 26:6). Jerusalem will finally become the city of peace and capital of the world when Christ, who is our peace, returns (Isaiah 9:6).
Having a history of 4,000 years, Jerusalem was first mentioned in Scripture in Genesis 14:18 when Melchizedek was king over the city of Salem. Later, it was called Jebus, named for the third son of Canaan, as it was the dwelling place of the Jebusites (Judges 19:10,11; 1 Chronicles 11:4, 5). When David took the city, the fortress was on a hill called Zion, another name given Jerusalem. Somehow, later, Jeru was added to Salem ... perhaps a combination of Jebus, changed to Jeru, and Salem. Since B.C. 400, Jerusalem has passed from one Gentile power to another. From 70 A.D. alone, the transition of power went from the Roman conquerors to the Persians in 614; to Caliph Omar in 637; to the Crusaders in 1099; to Salidan in 1187; to the Egyptian Mamalukes in 1250; the Turks in 1517; the British in 1917, and finally, in 1967, the Jews captured Jerusalem.
In Luke 21:24-28, Jesus said the Jews would be scattered throughout the world and the city of Jerusalem would be controlled by Gentile powers until the time of His return. In 1967, after the Six Day War was won, the Jews took control of Jerusalem for the first time in over 2,000 years. A peace settlement in the Middle East is one of the most important events predicted for the endtime. The signing of this treaty will start the final countdown of 2,520 days leading to Armageddon.
JESUS – Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC/BCE to 26–36 AD/CE), also known as Jesus Christ, is the central figure of Christianity, revered by most Christians as the incarnation of God, and is also an important figure in several other religions. “Christ” is a title derived from the Greek (Christos), meaning the “anointed One,” which corresponds to the Hebrew-derived “Messiah”.
JIHAD – (Arabic: gihad , an Islamic term), is a religious duty of Muslims. In Arabic, the word jihad translates as a noun meaning "struggle". Jihad appears 41 times in the Quran and frequently in the idiomatic expression "striving in the way of God (al-jihad fi sabil Allah)". A person engaged in jihad is called a mujahid; the plural is mujahideen. Jihad is an important religious duty for Muslims. A minority among the Sunni scholars sometimes refer to this duty as the sixth pillar of Islam, though it occupies no such official status. In Twelver Shi'a Islam, however, Jihad is one of the 10 Practices of the Religion. Muslims use the word in a religious context to refer to three types of struggles: an internal struggle to maintain faith, the struggle to improve the Muslim society, or the struggle to defend Islam. In western societies the term jihad is often translated by non-muslims as "holy war".
John the Baptist – (Also known as John the Evangelist) is the conventional name for the author of the Gospel of John. He was an itinerant preacher and a major religious figure mentioned in the Canonical gospels and the Qur'an. He is described in the Gospel of Luke as a relative of Jesus who led a movement of baptism at the Jordan River. John is regarded as a prophet in Christianity, Islam, the Bahį'ķ Faith, and Mandaeism. Most biblical scholars agree that John baptized Jesus at "Bethany beyond the Jordan", by wading into the water with Jesus from the eastern bank. According to the New Testament, John anticipated a messianic figure who would be greater than himself, and Jesus was the one whose coming John foretold. Christians commonly refer to John as the precursor or forerunner of Jesus, since John announces Jesus' coming.
Joseph – Joseph, son of Israel (Jacob) and Rachel, lived in the land of Canaan with eleven brothers and one sister. He was Rachel's firstborn and Israel's eleventh son. Of all the sons, Joseph was loved by his father the most. Israel even arrayed Joseph with a "long coat of many colors". Israel's favoritism toward Joseph caused his half brothers to hate him, and when Joseph was seventeen years old he had two dreams that made his brothers plot his demise. In the first dream, Joseph and his brothers gathered bundles of grain. Then, all of the grain bundles that had been prepared by the brothers gathered around Joseph's bundle and bowed down to it. In the second dream, the sun (father), the moon (mother) and eleven stars (brothers) bowed down to Joseph himself. When he told these two dreams to his brothers, they despised him for the implications that the family would be bowing down to Joseph. They became jealous that their father would even ponder over Joseph's words concerning these dreams. (Genesis 37:1-11)
JUDAISM – (from the Latin Iudaismus, derived from the Greek Iouda?smos, and ultimately from the Hebrew Yehudah, "Judah"; in Hebrew: Yahedut, the distinctive characteristics of the Judean ethnos) is the "religion, philosophy, and way of life" of the Jewish people. Originating in the Hebrew Bible (also known as the Tanakh) and explored in later texts such as the Talmud, it is considered by religious Jews to be the expression of the covenantal relationship God developed with the Children of Israel. According to traditional Rabbinic Judaism, God revealed his laws and commandments to Moses on Mount Sinai in the form of both the Written and Oral Torah.
JUDGMENT, Day of – Throughout the Bible it is accepted that people are accountable to God. Good deeds are commended and evil deeds are blamed. The day of judgment is the culmination of the whole process. At the end of this world order God will judge all people and all deeds. Nothing will be excepted; every secret thing, good or bad, will be brought into judgment (Eccles 12:14).
JUDGMENTS – Four different, diversified, and distinct judgments are presented in the Bible:
1. Judgment of the believer's sin: 2. Judgment of the believer's service: 3. Judgment of Isreal:
4. Judgment of the nations.
Matthew 25 pictures the return of Christ to this earth. This correlates with Revelation 19:11-16 when Christ returns as King of Kings and Lord of Lords. After Armageddon and before He establishes His millennial kingdom upon earth (Revelation 20:4), He purges the earth of its rebels.
There are a total of 21 special judgments that fall upon earth during the Tribulation period.
They are in three series of sevens described as seals, trumpets, and vials (or bowls):
    The Seal Judgments
  1. The world's greatest dictator (Revelation 6:1,2)
  2. The world's greatest war (Revelation 6:3,4)
  3. The world's greatest famine (Revelation 6:5,6)
  4. The world's greatest death blow (Revelation 6:7, 8)
  5. The world's greatest persecution (Revelation 6:9,10)
  6. The world's greatest ecological disaster (Revelation 6:11,12)
  7. The world s greatest hour of fear ... actually the lull before the storm (Revelation 8:1)
    The Trumpet Judgments
    The trumpets of heaven sound an alarm throughout the world announcing the public judgments of God. Each blast ushers in an added judgment.
  1. The world's greatest fire (Revelation 8:7)
  2. The world's greatest oceanic disturbance (Revelation 8:8, 9)
  3. The worlds greatest pollution of water (Revelation 8:10,11)
  4. The world's greatest darkness (Revelation 8:10,11)
  5. The world's greatest pestilential invasion (Revelation 9:1-6)
  6. The world's greatest army (Revelation 9:16)
  7. The world s greatest storm (Revelation 11:15-19)
    The Vial Judgments
  1. The world's greatest epidemic (Revelation 16:2)
  2. The world's greatest contamination by blood (Revelation 16:3-7)
  3. The world's greatest contamination by blood, continued (Revelation 16:3-7)
  4. The world's greatest scorching (Revelation 16:8, 9)
  5. The world's greatest plague (Revelation 16:10,11)
  6. The world's greatest invasion (Revelation 16:12)
  7. The world's greatest earthquake (Revelation 16:18)
KAIROS – The word kairos comes from the Greek word for time. Contrasting with chronos, meaning ordinary or chrono- logical time, kairos means holy or God-given time, time laden with meaning and choice. Kairos signals a time of crisis and new possibilities, a time of repentance, renewal and decisive action. “Take heed, keep on the alert; for you do not know when the appointed time [kairos] will come.” Mark 13:33.
KAIROS: Canadian Ecumenical Justice Initiatives is a web of people and partnerships dedicated to a faithful and decisive response to God’s call for respect for the earth and justice for its people. A faith-based ecumenical organization, inspired by a vision of God’s compassionate justice, KAIROS effects social change through advocacy, education and research programs in: Ecological Justice, Economic Justice, Energy and Extraction, Human Rights, Just and Sustainable Livelihoods, and Indigenous Peoples. These programs are informed by, and networked with, approximately 21 partner organisations in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East; about eighty local grassroots groups across Canada; as well as with countless other organizations, churches and individuals. MEMBER CHURCHES – Anglican Church of Canada, Christian Reformed Church in North America, Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada, The Presbyterian Church in Canada, United Church of Canada, Religious Society of Friends (Quakers), Canadian Catholic Organization for Development and Peace, Canadian Conference of Catholic bishops, Canadian Religious Conference, Mennonite Central Committee of Canada, The Primate's World Relief and Development Fund (PWRDF).
KINGS OF THE EAST – The word “kings” pictures the leaders of troops. Palestine will be invaded by a great army coming from beyond the Euphrates known as the forces of the kings of the east (Revelation 16:12). This represents a great alliance of powers that challenges the authority of the Beast. There will be a miraculous drying up of the river in order that they may cross unhindered.
KING OF THE NORTH –  Usually considered to be the Gog of Rosh or Russia, chief prince out of the North (Ezekiel 38, 39) (See Armageddon).
KING OF THE SOUTH – Usually considered to be the king of Egypt (Daniel 11) (See Armageddon).
KORAN – (Arabic: al-qur’an, literally “the recitation”; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Qur’an, Koran, Alcoran or Al-Qur’an) is the central religious text of Islam. Muslims believe the Qur’an to be the book of divine guidance and direction for mankind, and consider the original Arabic text to be the final revelation of God. Islam holds that the Qur’an was revealed to Muhammad by the angel Jibril (Gabriel) from 610 AD to his death in 632 AD. The Qur’an was written down by Muhammad's companions while he was alive, although the prime method of transmission was oral. In 633 AD, the written text was compiled, and in 653 AD it was standardized, distributed in the Islamic empire and produced in large numbers. The present form of the Qur’an is regarded as Muhammad's own words by academic scholars, and the search for significant variants in Western academia has been unsuccessful.
LAITY – In religious organizations, the laity comprises all persons who are not clergy. A person who is a member of a religious order who is not ordained clergy is considered as a member of the laity, even though they are members of a religious order (for example a nun or lay brother).
LAKE OF FIRE –  The final place of punishment and torment for all those who reject Christ (Revelation 19:20; 20:10, 14, 15). Those consigned there are all whose names are not in the Book of Life (Revelation 20:15), along with worshipers of Antichrist (Revelation 14:9, 10), as well as the Antichrist and the False Prophet (Revelation 19:20), the devil (Revelation 20:10; Matthew 24:42), and the devils angels (Matthew 25:41; Revelation 19:20; 20:10).
They are all forever separated from God (2 Thessalonians 1:9). The Lake of Fire is described in Scripture as a place where their worm dieth not (Mark 9:44), as a place of outer darkness
(Matthew 8:12), as a place of everlasting fire (Matthew 18:8), where the smoke of their torment ascendeth (Revelation 14:11), and where the second death occurs (eternal separation from God) (Revelation 20:14) in fire and brimstone (Revelation 21:8).
LAMB OF GOD – John the Baptist introduced Jesus Christ as the “Lamb of God” which taketh away the sin of the world (John 1:29). John knew that Isaiah described Christ in prophecy as a “lamb brought to the slaughter,” prophesying the Crucifixion centuries before the fact (Isaiah 53:1-6). Revelation 13:8 tells us He was the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world in the foreknowledge of God. Thus, Jesus Christ became the sacrificial Lamb predicted in the Old Testament, shedding His blood for the remission of sins (Hebrews 9:22,28). This blood of Jesus Christ, [Gods] Son, cleanseth us from all sin (1 John 1:7). Presently no one can overcome Satan but by the blood of the Lamb (Revelation 12:11). John sees Christ as a lamb on the throne, worthy to be praised because of His sacrifice for our sins and the only One worthy to open “the book,” the title deed to the earth (Revelation 5:3, 5, 9).
LAMBETH CONFERENCE – The Lambeth Conferences are decennial assemblies of bishops of the Anglican Communion convened by the Archbishop of Canterbury. The first such conference took place in 1867. As the Anglican Communion is an international association of national churches and not a governing body, Lambeth Conferences serve a collaborative and consultative function, expressing 'the mind of the communion' on issues of the day. Resolutions which a Lambeth Conference may pass are without legal effect, but they are nonetheless influential. These conferences form one of the Communion's four “Instruments of Communion”. The Lambeth Conference of bishops meets every 10 years solely at the personal invitation of the Archbishop of Canterbury.
LAMECH – (pronounced /'leImek/) (Hebrew) is the name of two men in the genealogies of Adam in the Book of Genesis. One is the seventh generation descendant of Cain (Genesis 4:18); his father was named Methusael and he was responsible for the “Song of the Sword.” He is also noted as the first polygamist mentioned in the Bible, taking two wives, Ada and Tselah. The other Lamech is an eighth generation descendant of Seth (Genesis 5:25). He is the son of Methuselah and was the father of Noah (Genesis 5:29)
LASCIVIOUS – is a word synonymous with lustful or lewd or unruly. Lascivious is a semi-technical term indicating immoral sexual thoughts or actions. It is often used in the legal description of criminal acts in which some sort of sexual activity is prohibited to differentiate that activity from "innocent" conduct. It is often used as one of several adjectives to describe pornography as compared to non-pornographic depictions of sex or sexual themes.
LAYING ON OF HANDS – is a religious practice found throughout the world in varying forms. In Christian churches, this practice is used as both a symbolic and formal method of invoking the Holy Spirit during baptisms, healing services, blessings, and ordination of priests, ministers, elders, deacons, and other church officers, along with a variety of other church sacraments and holy ceremonies.
LECTERN – (from the Latin lectus, past participle of legere, “to read”) is a reading desk with a slanted top, usually placed on a stand or affixed to a some other form of support, on which documents or books are placed as support for reading aloud, as in a Scripture reading.
LENT – in most Christian denominations, is the forty-day liturgical season of fasting and prayer before Easter. The forty days represent the time Jesus spent in the desert, where, according to the Bible, he endured temptation by Satan. Different churches calculate the forty days differently. The purpose of Lent is the preparation of the believer through prayer, penitence, almsgiving and self-denial for the annual commemoration during Holy Week of the Death and Resurrection of Jesus, which recalls the events linked to the Passion of Christ and culminates in Easter, the celebration of the Resurrection of Jesus Christ.
LEVITICUS – Is the third book of Moses. Refers to the Levites and the regulations that apply to their presence and service in the Temple, which form the bulk of the third book. No book contains more of the very words of God. He is almost throughout the whole of it the direct speaker. This book is a prophecy of things to come, a shadow whereof the substance is Christ and His kingdom. A series of laws regarding sacrifices, burnt-offerings, meat-offerings, and thank-offerings, sin-offerings and trespass-offerings, followed by the law of the priestly duties in connection with the offering of sacrifices. Then follow promises and warnings to the people regarding obedience to these commandments, closing with a section on vows. The various ordinances contained in this book were all delivered in the space of a month, the first month of the second year after the Exodus. It contains in its complicated ceremonial the gospel of the grace of God.
LITANY – A litany, in Christian worship, is a form of prayer used in church services and processions, and consisting of a number of petitions. The word comes from the Latin litania, from the Greek lit?, meaning “prayer” or “supplication”.
The Anglican Church has a Litany in the Book of Common Prayer.
LITURGY – A liturgy is the customary public worship done by a specific religious group, according to their particular traditions. The word may refer to an elaborate formal ritual.
LOCHOS – A lochos, plural lochoi (Greek), was a tactical sub unit of Classical Greece and of the modern Greek army. The term derived from the ancient Greek for ambush and the men carrying out the ambush, but in practice, its meaning was essentially that of “war-band”, a body of armed men. This translation has been used traditionally, e.g. for the Sacred Band of Thebes. However in modern context, a more correct rendering would be “company.”
LORDS PRAYER – the name given to the only form of prayer Christ taught His disciples ( Matthew 6:9-13 ). The closing doxology of the prayer is omitted by ( Luke 11:2-4 ), also in the RSV of Matthew 6:13 . This prayer contains no allusion to the atonement of Christ, nor to the offices of the Holy Spirit. “All Christian prayer is based on the Lord's Prayer, but its spirit is also guided by that of His prayer in Gethsemane and of the prayer recorded John 17 . The Lord's Prayer is the comprehensive type of the simplest and most universal prayer.”
LUCIFER – (light-bearer ), found in ( Isaiah 14:12 ) coupled with the epithet “son of the morning,” clearly signifies a “bright star,” and probably what we call the morning star. In this passage it is a symbolical representation of the king of Babylon in his splendor and in his fall. Its application, from St. Jerome downward, to Satan in his fall from heaven arises probably from the fact that the Babylonian empire is in Scripture represented as the type of tyrannical and self idolizing power, and especially connected with the empire of the Evil One in the Apocalypse.
Luke, Gospel of – The third Gospel of the New Testament is ascribed, by the general consent of ancient Christendom, to “the beloved physician,” Luke, the friend and companion of the Apostle Paul. Lukes Gospel therefore represented the character and career of Christ as answering the conception of a perfect and divine humanity. Reason, beauty, righteousness and truth are exhibited as they meet in Jesus in their full splendor.
LUTHERAN – The name "Lutheran" originated as a derogatory term used against Martin Luther, a German reformer by Johann Eck during the Leipzig Debate in July 1519. Eck and other Roman Catholics followed the traditional practice of naming a heresy after its leader, thus labeling all who identified with the theology of Martin Luther as Lutherans. Martin Luther always disliked the term, preferring instead to describe the reform movement with the term "Evangelical", which was derived from euangelion, a Greek word meaning "good news".
LUTHERANISN – is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the theology of Martin Luther. Luther's efforts to reform the theology and practice of the church launched the Protestant Reformation. Beginning with the 95 Theses, Luther's writings disseminated internationally, spreading the ideas of the Reformation beyond the ability of governmental and churchly authorities to control it. Lutherans themselves began to use the term in the middle of the 16th century in order to identify themselves from other groups. The split between the Lutherans and the Roman Catholics began with the Edict of Worms in 1521, which officially excommunicated Luther and all of his followers. The divide centered over the doctrine of Justification. Lutheranism advocates a doctrine of justification "by grace alone through faith alone because of Christ alone" which went against the Roman view of "faith formed by love", or "faith and works".
Ceremonial Mace
MACE – is a highly ornamented staff of metal or wood, carried before a sovereign or other high official in civic ceremonies by a mace-bearer, intended to represent the official’s authority. The ceremonial mace was used early a symbol of authority of military commanders. The earliest ceremonial maces were practical weapons intended to protect the king's person, borne by the Serjeants-at-Arms, a royal bodyguard established in France by Philip II, and in England probably by Richard I. By the 14th century, these serjants’ maces had started to become increasingly decorative, encased in precious metals. The mace as a real weapon went out of use with the disappearance of heavy armor.
MAGOG – Magog appears in the Table of Nations in Genesis 10:2 as the eponymous ancestor of a people or nation: The sons of Japheth: Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras. Gog is listed as a descendant of Reuben (eldest son of patriarch Jacob) in the 5th century BC 1 Chronicles 5: 3, 4. “Gog” and “Magog” appear together in the Book of Ezekiel, 38:2–3: 38:2. Son of man, set thy face against Gog, of the land of Magog, the prince of Rosh, Meshech and Tubal, and prophesy against him, 3. And you shall say; So said the Lord God: Behold, I am against you, Gog, the prince of Rosh, Meshech and Tubal.
Malachi – (or Malachias, Mal'ahi, M?l'akh?) is a book of the Hebrew Bible, written by the prophet Malachi. Possibly this is not the name of the author, since Malachi means 'my messenger' or 'my angel' in Hebrew. The last of the twelve minor prophets (canonically), the final book of the Hebrew Bible in Christian, but not Jewish tradition is commonly attributed to a prophet by the name of Malachi. Although the appellation Malachi has frequently been understood as a proper name, its Hebrew meaning is simply "My [i.e., God's] messenger".
MARANATHA – A watch word of first century Christians to express the thought, “Our Lord cometh” (See 1 Corinthians 16:22). Reveleation 22:20 expresses the thought, “Even so, come, Lord Jesus.”
Mark – The Gospel According to Mark, commonly shortened to the Gospel of Mark or simply Mark, is the second book of the New Testament. This canonical account of the life of Jesus of Nazareth is one of the three synoptic gospels. It was thought to be an epitome, which accounts for its place as the second gospel in the Bible. However, most contemporary scholars now regard it as the earliest of the canonical gospels. The Gospel of Mark narrates the Ministry of Jesus from his baptism by John the Baptist to his death and resurrection. It focuses particularly on the last week of his life (chapters 11–16) in Jerusalem. Its swift narrative portrays Jesus as a heroic man of action, an exorcist, healer and miracle worker. An important theme of Mark is the Messianic Secret. Jesus silences the demoniacs he heals, tries unsuccessfully to keep his messianic identity secret, and conceals his message with parables. Meanwhile, the disciples fail to understand both the implication of the miracles of Jesus and the meaning of the things he predicts about his arrest, death and resurrection. Most believe that the original text of the gospel ends at Mark 16:8 with the discovery of Jesus' empty tomb. According to tradition and some early church writers, the author is Mark the Evangelist, the companion of the apostle Peter. The gospel, however, appears to rely on several underlying sources, varying in form and in theology, which tells against the tradition that the gospel was based on Peter's preaching. Some of the stories in the gospel may have been transmitted orally before being written down.
MARK OF THE BEAST – During the Tribulation, the False Prophet will insist that people loyal to Antichrist wear a mark which will be placed either in their right hand or in their forehead. This must be shown to buy or sell (Revelation 13:16-18), or to transact any business. This mark will consist of either the name of the Beast (Antichrist) or his number, 666 (Revelation 14:11). At the final judgment of God (Great White Throne), all those who received this mark will be tormented with fire and brimstone ... and the smoke of their torment ascendeth up forever and ever (Revelation 14:11).
MARRIAGE OF THE LAMB – The marriage partners at this glorious event include the Lamb (Christ) (Ephesians 5:25-33) and His Bride (the Church). They have been in heaven during the Tribulation Hour. While earth dwellers suffered judgment, the Bride was being investigated in preparation for the wedding (Revelation 19:7) (See Judgment Seat of Christ). For many, who were unfaithful to Christ during the engagement period (their years of service upon earth), this will be a time of humiliation
(1 John 2:28) as every believer will be attired in the wedding garment he made upon earth.
The material will be composed of their good deeds that remain after the Judgment Seat has occurred (Revelation 19:7, 8). Righteousnesses rather than righteousness is the correct word in this text.
The Bride includes all believers from the Day of Pentecost. until the Rapture. All Christians will be presented in one body (or group) as a chaste virgin to Christ (2 Corinthians 11:2). Symbolized as a bride, the Church is clothed in fine white linen (Revelation 19:7,8). The Lord Jesus Christ, himself, is the Bridegroom (Ephesians 5:25-33). The marriage itself takes place in heaven during the end of the Tribulation period on earth. The phrase, the marriage of the Lamb is come (Revelation 19:7), signifies that the Church's union with Christ has been completed (1 Thessalonians 4:17).
From this point on, wherever Christ goes, His beloved Bride goes with Him.
MARTYR – is somebody who suffers persecution and death for the people, a country or an organization, or refusing to renounce a belief, usually religious, political or rights. In Christianity, a martyr, in accordance with the meaning of the original Greek martys in the New Testament, is one who brings a testimony, usually written or verbal. In particular, the testimony is that of the Christian Gospel, or more generally, the Word of God. A Christian witness is a biblical witness whether or not death follows. However over time many Christian testimonies were rejected, and the witnesses put to death, and the word “martyr” developed its present sense. Where death ensues, the witnesses follow the example of Jesus in offering up their lives for truth. The first Christian witness to be killed for his testimony was Saint Stephen (whose name means “crown”), and those who suffer martyrdom are said to have been “crowned.” In the context of church history, from the time of the persecution of early Christians in the Roman Empire, it developed that a martyr was one who was killed for maintaining a religious belief, knowing that this will almost certainly result in imminent death (though without intentionally seeking death).This definition of “martyr” is not specifically restricted to the Christian faith. Some Christians view death in sectarian persecution, as well as religious persecution, as martyrdom.
MASORETIC Text (MT) – is the authoritative Hebrew text of the Jewish Bible regarded almost universally as the official version of the Tanakh. It defines not just the books of the Jewish canon, but also the precise letter-text of the biblical books in Judaism.
Matthew – (Gospel of Matthew or simply Matthew) is one of the four canonical gospels, one of the three synoptic gospels, and the first book of the New Testament. The narrative tells how the Messiah, having been rejected by Israel, finally sends the disciples to preach his Gospel to the whole world, baptizing in the name of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit. The Gospel of Matthew was composed between 70 and 110 CE, with most scholars preferring the period 80-90 CE
MAUNDAY THURSDAY – is the Christian feast or holy day falling on the Thursday before Easter that commemorates the Last Supper of Jesus Christ with the Apostles. It is the fifth day of Holy Week, and is preceded by Holy Wednesday and followed by Good Friday.
MELCHISEDEC Priesthood – There are only two Priesthoods recognized by God: (1) the Melchisedec Priesthood, and (2) the Levitical Priesthood. The Melchisedec Priesthood has existed since Adam.  It is only through the Melchisedec Priesthood that men can be born of water and the spirit; and become acceptable before God. A priesthood of an endless life. A person who is ordained to this priesthood, and remains faithful and obedient in mortal life, holds it both in mortal life and in eternity.
Meshech – is the father of a race mentioned in connection with Tubal, Magog, and other northern nations. Generally speaking, Russia is the modern land of Magog, Tubal and Meshech. Meshech today is Moscow.
MESSIAH – Literally means “The anointed (One)”, typically someone anointed with holy anointing oil. Figuratively, anointing is done to signify being chosen for a task; so, Messiah means “The Chosen (One)”, particularly someone divinely chosen.
MESSIANIC – primarily means of the Messiah.
MINOR prophet – A minor prophet is one of the writings in the Twelve Prophets section of the Hebrew Bible, also known to Christians as the Minor Prophets of the Old Testament. Twelve individuals had their names attributed to a section of the Hebrew Bible which has become known by the Aramaic term as the Trei Asar (“Twelve”) in traditional Jewish editions and “Books of the Minor Prophets” or the “Minor Prophets” in Christian editions. In the Hebrew Bible the writings of the minor prophets are counted as a single book, in Christian Bibles as twelve individual books.
The “Twelve” are listed here in order of their appearance in Hebrew and most Protestant and Catholic Christian bibles: Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi.
MISSIONARY – a member of a religion who works to convert those who do not share the missionary's faith; someone who proselytizes. Mitre
MITRE – (sometimes also spelled miter), from the Greek 'headband' or 'turban', is a type of headgear now known as the traditional, ceremonial head – dress of bishops and certain abbots in the Catholic Church, as well as in the Anglican Communion, some Lutheran churches, and also bishops and certain other clergy.
MONASTIC – (from Greek monachos, derived from Greek monos, alone) is the religious practice in which someone renounces worldly pursuits to fully devote their life to spiritual work. The origin of the word is from Ancient Greek, and the idea originally related to Christian monks. In the Christian tradition, those pursuing a monastic life are usually called monks or brethren (brothers) if male, and nuns or sisters if female. Both monks and nuns may also be called monastics. Some other religions also include what could be described as “monastic” elements, most notably Buddhism, but also Taoism, Hinduism, and Jainism, though the expressions differ considerably.
MONK – A monk (Greek: monachos) is a person who practices religious asceticism, living either alone or with any number of monks, whilst always maintaining some degree of physical separation from those not sharing the same purpose. The concept is ancient and can be seen in many religions and in philosophy. In the Greek language the term can apply to men or women; but in modern English it is in use only for men, while nun is used for female monastics. Although the term monachos (“monk”) is of Christian origin, in the English language it tends to be used analogously or loosely also for ascetics from other religious or philosophical backgrounds. The term monk is generic and in some religious or philosophical traditions it therefore may be considered interchangeable with other terms such as ascetic. However, being generic, it is not interchangeable with terms that denote particular kinds of monk, such as cenobite, hermit, anchorite, hesychast, solitary. The first famous Christian known to adopt the life in a desert was St. Anthony the Great (251-356).
MONOTHEISM – In theology, monotheism (from Greek “only” and “God”) is the belief that only one God exists.
Moses – (Hebrew: Modern Moshe Tiberian Mošéh; Greek: Moüses; Arabic: Musa) was, according to the Hebrew Bible and Qur'an, a religious leader, lawgiver and prophet, to whom the authorship of the Torah is traditionally attributed. Also called Moshe Rabbenu in Hebrew ("Moses our Teacher/Rabbi"), he is the most important prophet in Judaism, and is also considered an important prophet in Christianity and Islam, as well as a number of other faiths.
According to the Book of Exodus, Moses was born in a time when his people, the Children of Israel, were increasing in number and the Egyptian Pharaoh was worried that they might help Egypt's enemies. Moses' Hebrew mother, Jochebed, hides him when the Pharaoh ordered all newborn Hebrew boys to be killed, and the child is adopted as a foundling by the Egyptian royal family. After killing an Egyptian slave-master, Moses flees across the Red Sea to Midian where he has his encounter with the God of Israel in the form of the "burning bush". God sends Moses to request the release of the Israelites. After the Ten Plagues, Moses leads the Exodus of the Israelites out of Egypt and across the Red Sea, after which they base themselves at Mount Sinai, where Moses receives the Ten Commandments. After 40 years of wandering in the desert, Moses dies aged 120, within sight of the Promised Land.
MUSLIN – any of various fine cotton cloths of plain weave, often dyed or printed; especially, a heavy variety used as sheets etc.
NARTHEX – of a church is the entrance, vestibule or lobby area, located at the end of the nave, at the far end from the church's main Altar leading to the sanctuary.
NATIVITY – (also see Creche) the Nativity, is the story of the birth of Jesus of Nazareth as described in the gospels of Matthew and Luke.
NAVE – the nave is the central approach to the high Altar.
Nebuchadnezzar II – was a ruler of Babylon in the Chaldean Dynasty, who reigned c. 605 BC – 562 BC. According to the Bible, he conquered Judah and Jerusalem, and sent the Jews into exile. He is credited with the construction of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. He is featured in the Book of Daniel and is also mentioned in several other books of the Bible. Nebuchandnezzars Dream
Nebuchadnezzar's Dream – God gave a preview of the future to a Gentile king who had taken the Jews captive. The dream is found in Daniel 2:31-35. It is an image of a man with a head of gold, breast and arms of silver, midsection and thighs of brass, legs of iron, and feet that were part iron and part clay. Its interpretation is veiled without Daniel's explanation. It is understood now by those familiar with the history of the rise and fall of Gentile empires from that day to this and it is intriguing in its implications for the endtime. The head of gold represented Nebuchadnezzar, whose power in the Babylonian Empire was absolute. Two nations, represented by the arms of silver (the Medes and the Persians) cause the fall of Babylon. The belly and thighs of brass was the Grecian Empire, headed by Alexander the Great. The legs of iron symbolized the Roman Empire ... why two legs? At one time, it was divided with headquarters in both Rome and Constantinople. The feet of the image, part iron and part clay, spoke of the revival of the Roman Empire in the last days in a deteriorated form with the ten toes representing ten leaders of that coming European federation. The great stone cut out of the mountain that fell on the feet of the image and destroyed it, represents the coming kingdom of Christ that will be established upon His return to earth. He will come when the final stage of the image is developed. We are at that point in history and there can be no doubt that closing time is near (Daniel 2:44,45).
NEW TESTAMENT – (Koine Greek: He Kaine Diatheke) is the second major division of the Christian biblical canon, the first such division being the much longer Old Testament. The New Testament is an anthology, a collection of works written at different times by various authors. In almost all Christian traditions today, the New Testament consists of 27 books. The original texts were written beginning around AD 50 in Koine Greek, the lingua franca of the eastern part of the Roman Empire where they were composed. All of the works which would eventually be incorporated into the New Testament would seem to have been written no later than the mid-2nd century.
NICENE CREED – (Latin: Symbolum Nicaenum) is the creed or profession of faith that is most widely used in Christian liturgy. It is called Nicene because, in its original form, it was adopted in the city of Nicaea by the first ecumenical council, which met there in A.D. 325. The Nicene Creed has been normative to the Anglican, Lutheran, and Roman Catholic Eucharistic rite as well as Eastern and Oriental Orthodox liturgies. It is given high importance in the Anglican Church and most Protestant denominations.
NICODEMUS – was a Pharisee and a member of the Sanhedrin, who, according to the Gospel of John, showed favour to Jesus. He appears three times in the Gospel: the first is when he visits Jesus one night to listen to his teachings (John 3:1-21); the second is when he states the law concerning the arrest of Jesus during the Feast of Tabernacles (John 7:45-51); and the last follows the Crucifixion, when he assists Joseph of Arimathea in preparing the corpse of Jesus for burial (John 19:39-42).
NICOLAISM – (also Nicholaism, Nicolationism, or Nicolaitanism) is a Christian heresy whose adherents are called nicolaitans, nicolaitanes, or nicolaites. “Nico” means “conquer” in Greek, and “Laitan” refers to lay people, or laity; hence, the word may be taken to mean “Lay conquerors” or Conquerors of the Lay People. However, “Nicolaitan” is simply the name given to followers of the heretic Nicolas (Greek: Nikolaos-the name itself meaning 'victorious over people'or 'victory of the people' which he would have been given at birth). They are first mentioned (twice) in the Book of Revelation in the New Testament. According to Revelation 2, vv. 6 and 15, they were known in the cities of Ephesus and Pergamon (around AD 99). In this chapter, the church at Ephesus is commended for “hating the deeds of the Nicolaitans, which I also hate” and the church in Pergamon is blamed for “having them who hold their [the Nicolaitans’] doctrines.”
Noah – (or Noe, Noyach; Hebrew: Modern Noa? Tiberian Noa?; Arabic: Nu?) was, according to the Bible, the tenth and last of the antediluvian patriarchs; and a prophet and messenger according to the Qur'an. The biblical story of Noah is contained in the book of Genesis, chapters 6–9; he is also found in the passage “Noah's sons”, while the Qur'an has an entire sura named after and devoted to his story, with other references elsewhere. In the Genesis account, Noah saves his family and representatives of all animals in groups of two or seven from the flood. In the Islamic account, a group of 72 others are also saved. He receives a covenant from God, and his sons repopulate the earth.
NOAH'S ARK – is the vessel which, according to the Book of Genesis and Quran, was built by Noah at God's command to save himself, his family, and the world's animals from a worldwide deluge. The Book of Genesis, chapters 6-9, tells how God sends a great flood to destroy the earth because of man's wickedness and because the earth is corrupt. God tells Noah, the righteous man in his generation, to build a large vessel to save his family and a representation of the world's animals. God gives detailed instructions for the Ark (The Ark is to have been 300 cubits long, 50 cubits wide, and 30 cubits high, and it had three decks) and, after its completion, sends the animals to Noah. God then sends the Flood, which rises until all the mountains are covered, and most living things died, except the fish. Then “God remembered Noah,” the waters abate, and dry land reappears. Noah, his family, and the animals leave the Ark, and God vowed to never again send a flood to destroy the Earth. The Bible says the Ark came to rest on the mountains of Ararat, in Turkey.
“In Noah's six hundred and first year, in the first month, the first day of the month, the waters were dried from off the earth, and Noah removed the covering of the ark and looked, and behold, the face of the ground was dry.” God tells Noah to leave the ark, Noah offers a sacrifice to God, and God resolves never again to destroy the earth and God established his covenant with Noah and his sons and with all living things, and places the rainbow in the clouds “the sign of the covenant that I have established between me and all flesh that is on the earth.”
NUMBERS – the fourth book, contains a record of the numbering of the Israelites in the wilderness of Sinai and later on the plain of Moab.
OBEISANCE – Homage or reverence to any one. (n.) A manifestation of obedience; an expression of difference or respect; homage; a bow; a courtesy.
OCCULT – The word occult comes from the Latin word occultus (clandestine, hidden, secret), referring to “knowledge of the hidden”. In the medical sense it is used to refer to a structure or process that is hidden, e.g. an “occult bleed” may be one detected indirectly by the presence of otherwise unexplained anaemia. The word has many uses in the English language, popularly meaning “knowledge of the paranormal”, as opposed to “knowledge of the measurable”, usually referred to as science. The term is sometimes popularly taken to mean “knowledge meant only for certain people” or “knowledge that must be kept hidden”, but for most practicing occultists it is simply the study of a deeper spiritual reality that extends beyond pure reason and the physical sciences. The terms esoteric and arcane can have a very similar meaning, and the three terms are often interchangeable. The term occult is also used as a label given to a number of magical organizations or orders, the teachings and practices taught by them, and to a large body of current and historical literature and spiritual philosophy related to this subject.
OLIVET PROPHECY – a vital prophecy describing the sequence of events leading directly to the end of civilization as we know it today, and leading to the beginning of a very different age. The discussion began as Jesus' disciples asked: “Tell us, when will these things be? And what will be the sign of Your coming, and the end of the age?”—this age of man's rule (Matthew 24:3). After listing a series of conditions, including the appearance of false prophets, local and world wars, famines, disease epidemics and earthquakes, Jesus described a “Great Tribulation” on the earth—“such as has not been since the beginning of the world until this time, no, nor ever shall be” (Matthew 24:21).
OMNISCIENCE – is the capacity to know everything infinitely, or at least everything that can be known about a character including thoughts, feelings, life and the universe, etc.
In Latin, omnis means "all" and sciens means "knowing". Omniscience is the capacity to know everything.
OPHANIM – An Ophan (Lat. ophan[us], pl. ophani[m]) is one of a class of celestial beings called Ophanim described in the Book of Enoch with the cherubim and Seraphim as never sleeping, but watching (or guarding) the throne of God. The word ophan means “wheel” in Hebrew so the Ophanim have been associated with the description in Ezekiel 1:15-21 and possibly again in the Daniel 7:9 (mentioned as gagal, traditionally “the wheels of gagallin”, in “fiery flame” and “burning fire”) of the four, eye-covered wheels (each composed of two nested wheels), that move next to the winged Cherubim, beneath the throne of God. The four wheels move with the Cherubim because the spirit of the Cherubim is in them. These are also referred to as the “many-eyed ones” in the Second Book of Enoch. The Ophanim are also equated as the “Thrones”, associated with the “Wheels”, in the vision of Daniel 7:9 (Old Testament). They are the carriers of the throne of God, hence the name. However, they may or may not be the same Thrones (Gr. thronos) mentioned by Paul of Tarsus in Colossians 1:16 (New Testament).
ORACLE – In Classical Antiquity, an oracle was a person or agency considered to be a source of wise counsel or prophetic opinion, predictions or precognition of the future, inspired by the gods. As such it is a form of divination. The word is derived from the Latin verb orare “to speak” and properly refers to the priest or priestess uttering the prediction. In extended use, oracle may also refer to the site of the oracle, and to the oracular utterances themselves, called khresmoi in Greek. Oracles were thought to be portals through which the gods spoke directly to man. In this sense they were different from seers who interpreted signs sent by the gods through bird signs, animal entrails, and other various methods. Orb

ORB – The Orb, a golden globe topped by a diamond encrusted cross dates to 1661 for the coronation of Charles II and is symbolic of the world ruled by Christianity, it is held in the monarch's left hand during the coronation ceremony. The jeweled cross which surmounts the orb reflects the monarch's title of Defender of the Faith.

ORDAINED – individuals who have performed the various religious rites and ceremonies required in the process of Ordination.
ORDINATION – is the process by which individuals are consecrated, that is set apart as clergy to perform various religious rites and ceremonies. In most Protestant churches, ordination to the pastoral office is the rite by which their various churches:
1. recognize and confirm that an individual has been called by God to ministry,
2. acknowledges that the individual has gone through a period of discernment and training related to this call, and
3. authorizes that individual to take on the office of ministry. For the sake of authorization and church order, and not for reason of 'powers' or 'ability', individuals in most mainline Protestant churches must be ordained in order to preside at the sacraments (Baptism and Holy Communion), and to be installed as a called pastor of a congregation or parish.
OMNIPOTENCE – (from Latin root Omni Potens: “all power”) (ŏm-nĭp'o·tence) is unlimited power. Omnipotence is maximal power. Maximal greatness (or perfection) includes omnipotence. According to traditional Western theism, God is maximally great (or perfect), and therefore is omnipotent.
ORTHODOX – from Greek orthodoxos “having the right opinion”, from orthos (“right”, “true”, “straight”) + doxa (“opinion” or “praise”, related to dokein, “to think”), is typically used to mean adhering to the accepted or traditional and established faith, especially in religion.
PAGAN – The term pagan is from the Latin paganus, an adjective originally meaning “rural”, “rustic” or “of the country.” As a noun, paganus was used to mean “country dweller, villager.” The semantic development of post-classical Latin paganus in the sense “One who worships false gods; an idolater; a heathen; one who is neither a Christian, a Mohammedan, nor a Jew” is unclear. The dating of this sense is controversial, but the 4th century seems most plausible. It has been argued that the transferred use reflects the fact that the ancient idolatry lingered on in the rural villages and hamlets after Christianity had been generally accepted in the towns and cities of the Roman Empire.
PALIN – [Greek-Latin] – (1)renewal or repetition of the action. (2)again, i.e. further, moreover. (3)in turn, on the other hand.
PALM SUNDAY – is a Christian moveable feast that falls on the Sunday before Easter. The feast commemorates Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem, an event mentioned in all four Canonical Gospels. (Mark 11:1–11, Matthew 21:1–11, Luke 19:28–44, and John 12:12–19). In many Christian churches, Palm Sunday is marked by the distribution of palm leaves (often tied into crosses) to the assembled worshipers.
PAPYRUS – is a thick paper-like material produced from the pith of the papyrus plant, Cyperus papyrus, a wetland sedge that was once abundant in the Nile Delta of Egypt. Papyrus usually grow 2–3 meters (5–9 ft) tall. Papyrus is first known to have been used in ancient Egypt (at least as far back as the First dynasty), but it was also used throughout the Mediterranean region. Ancient Egypt used this plant as a writing material and for boats, mattresses, mats, rope, sandals, and baskets.
PARACLETE – (Latin paracletus) one who consoles, one who intercedes on our behalf, a comforter meaning advocate or helper most commonly refers to the Holy Spirit.
PARCHMENT – is a thin material made from calfskin, sheepskin or goatskin, often split. Its most common use was as a material for writing on, for documents, notes, or the pages of a book, codex or manuscript. It is distinct from leather in that parchment is limed but not tanned; therefore, it is very reactive to changes in relative humidity and is not waterproof. The finer qualities of parchment are called vellum.
PARISH –  A parish is a territorial unit historically under the pastoral care of one parish priest, who might be assisted in his pastoral duties by a curate or curates - also priests but not the parish priest - from a more or less central parish church with its associated organization. By extension the term parish refers not only to the territorial unit but to the people of its community or congregation as well as to church property within it.
PASSION OF CHRIST – The Passion is the Christian theological term used for the events and suffering – physical, spiritual, and mental – of Jesus in the hours before and including his trial and execution by crucifixion. The Crucifixion of Jesus is an event central to Christian beliefs. It is based on the New Testament accounts of the arrest, trial, torture, crucifixion, and resurrection of Jesus Christ, events commonly known as The Passion.
PASSIONTIDE – (in the Christian liturgical year) is a name for the last two weeks of Lent, beginning on Passion Sunday (the beginning of Forty Hours' Devotion) and ending on Holy Saturday.
PASSOVER – is a Jewish and Samaritan holy day and festival commemorating the Exodus from Egypt and the liberation of the Israelites from slavery. It is also known as Festival of the Unleavened Bread. In the story of Moses, God set ten plagues upon the Egyptians to convince pharaoh to release the Israelites. The tenth plague was the killing of the firstborn sons. However, the Israelites were instructed to mark the doorposts of their homes with the blood of a spring lamb, and upon seeing this, the spirit of the Lord passed over these homes, hence the term “passover”.
PATRIARCH – Is a Greek word, a compound of (patria), "lineage, descent", esp. by the father's side (which comes pater meaning "father") and (archon) meaning "leader", "chief", "ruler", "king", etc. Originally a patriarch was a man who exercised autocratic authority as a pater familias over an extended family. The system of such rule of families by senior males is called patriarchy. Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob are referred to as the three patriarchs of the people of Israel, and the period in which they lived is called the Patriarchal Age.
PAUL – (See Saint Paul)
PENTATEUCH – The term “Pentateuch” (literally “five cases”) is a Greek word used to refer to the “Five Books of Moses.”
PENTECOST – (Ancient Greek: pentekoste [hemera], “the fiftieth day”) is one of the prominent feasts in the Christian liturgical year, celebrated the 49th day (7 weeks) after Easter Sunday (the tenth day after Ascension Thursday). Pentecost originated after the Exodus when it was variously called the Feast of First Fruits, the Feast of Weeks, or the Feast of Harvest (Leviticus 23:15-21, Deuteronomy 16:9-12). It was observed 50 days after the ceremonial cutting of the first grain offering after the Passover – hence the origin of the Greek word Pentecost, which means to “fifty count.” The Old Testament Feast of First Fruits occurred 50 days after the slaying of the Passover lamb. By no coincidence, the New Testament Pentecost, as we read in the opening verses, occurred 50 days after The Crucifixion of Jesus Christ, the “Lamb of God.” Historically and symbolically related to the Jewish harvest festival of Shavuot, it commemorates the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the Apostles and other followers of Jesus as described in the Book of Acts, Chapter 2. Pentecost is also called Whitsun, Whitsunday, or Whit Sunday, especially in the United Kingdom.
PERDITION – (noun) 1. a state of final spiritual ruin; loss of the soul; damnation. 2. the future state of the wicked. 3. hell. 4. Obsolete.
PERGAMUM, Pergamonor or Pérgamo  – was an ancient Greek city in modern-day Turkey, in Mysia, today located 160 miles (260 km) from the Aegean Sea on a promontory on the north side of the river Caicus (modern day Bakir?ay). A notable structure is the Serapis Temple (Serapeum) which was later transformed into the Red Basilica complex (or Kizil Avlu in Turkish), about one kilometer south of the Acropolis. It consists of a main building and two round towers. In the first century AD, the Christian Church at Pergamon inside the main building of the Red Basilica was one of the Seven Churches to which the Book of Revelation was addressed (Revelation 2:12).
PEW – is a long bench used for seating members of a church's congregation.
PHALANX – (Modern Greek: phalanga) (plural phalanxes or phalanges (Ancient and Modern Greek: phalanges) is a rectangular mass military formation, usually composed entirely of heavy infantry armed with spears, pikes, sarissas, or similar weapons. The term is particularly (and originally) used to describe the use of this formation in Ancient Greek warfare, although the ancient Greek writers used it to also describe any massed infantry formation, regardless of its equipment.
PHARAOH – The official title borne by the Egyptian kings down to the time when that country was conquered by the Greeks.
PHARISEES – (Latin pharisæus, from Hebrew, pl. par?š, meaning “set apart”, Qal passive participle of the verb paraš, through Greek pharisaios) were at various times a political party, a social movement, and a school of thought among Jews during the Second Temple period beginning under the Hasmonean dynasty (140–37 BCE) in the wake of the Maccabean Revolt. Conflicts between the Pharisees and the Sadducees took place in the context of much broader and longstanding social and religious conflicts among Jews dating back to the Babylonian captivity and exacerbated by the Roman conquest. One conflict was class, between the wealthy and the poor, as the Sadducees included mainly the priestly and aristocratic families. Another conflict was cultural, between those who favored Hellenization and those who resisted it. A third was juridico-religious, between those who emphasized the importance of the Second Temple, and those who emphasized the importance of other Mosaic laws and prophetic values. A fourth, specifically religious, involved different interpretations of the Torah and how to apply it to current Jewish life, with the Sadducees recognizing only the Written Torah and rejecting doctrines such as the Oral Torah and the Resurrection of the Dead.
Philemon – was an early Christian in Asia Minor who was the recipient of a private letter from Paul of Tarsus. This letter is known as the Epistle to Philemon in the New Testament. He is known as a saint by several Christian churches along with his wife Apphia. Philemon was a wealthy Christian and a minister (possibly a bishop) of the house church that met in his home in Colosse, Phrygia. In the list of the Seventy Apostles, attributed to Dorotheus of Tyre, Philemon is described as bishop of Gaza.
PIETY – In spiritual terminology, piety is a virtue. While different people may understand its meaning differently, it is generally used to refer either to religious devotion or to spirituality, or often, a combination of both. A common element in most conceptions of piety is humility. (n.) Veneration or reverence of the Supreme Being, and love of his character; loving obedience to the will of God, and earnest devotion to his service.
POGROM – A pogrom is a form of violent riot, a mob attack, either approved or condoned by government or military authorities, directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious, or other, and characterized by killings and destruction of their homes, businesses, and religious centres, property. The term was originally used to denote extensive violence against Jews in the Russian Empire.
POLEMIC – A polemic is a variety of argument or controversy made against one opinion, doctrine, or person. Other variations of argument are debate and discussion. The word is derived from the Greek polemikos, meaning “warlike, hostile”.
POLYGAMY – The term polygamy (a Greek word meaning “the practice of multiple marriage”) is used in related ways in social anthropology, sociobiology, sociology, as well as in popular speech. Polygamy can be defined as any “form of marriage in which a person [has] more than one spouse at the same time.”
PONTIUS PILATE – Latin: Pontius Pilatus, was the Equestrian procurator of the Roman province of Judaea from AD 26–36. Typically referenced as the fifth Prefect of Judaea, he is best known as the judge at Jesus' trial and the man who authorized his crucifixion.
PRAYER – is the act of attempting to communicate, commonly with a sequence of words, with a deity or spirit for the purpose of worshipping, requesting guidance, requesting assistance, confessing sins, as an act of reparation or to express one's thoughts and emotions. The words of the prayer may take the form of intercession, a hymn, incantation or a spontaneous utterance in the person's praying words. Secularly, the term can also be used as an alternative to “hope”.
PREDESTINATION  – in theology is the doctrine that all events have been willed by God. John Calvin interpreted biblical predestination to mean that God willed eternal damnation for some people and salvation for others. Explanations of predestination often seek to address the so-called "paradox of free will", that God's omniscience is seemingly incompatible with human free will.
PRESBYTER  – in the New Testament refers to a leader in local Christian congregations, then a synonym of episkopos (which has now come to mean bishop). In modern usage, it is distinct from bishop and synonymous with priest, pastor, elder, or minister in various Christian denominations. Its literal meaning in Greek (presbyteros) is “elder.” The earliest organization of the Christian Churches in Judea was similar to that of Jewish synagogues, who were governed by a council of elders (presbyteroi). In Acts 11:30 and 15:22, we see this collegiate system of government in Jerusalem, and in Acts 14:23, the Apostle Paul ordains elders in the churches he founded. Some modern comentators believe that these presbyters may have been identical to the overseers (episkopoi, i.e., bishops) and cite such passages as Acts 20:17, Titus 1:5,7 and 1 Peter 5:1 to support this claim.
PREY – When Russia invades Israel, it is to take a spoil and a prey (Ezekiel 38:11, 12). Russia is after the spoil while the Arabs come for the prey. The prey is the people themselves. For thousands of years the Jews have been the prey of persecutors. In this war, the Arab nations will be allies of Russia and their primary purpose will be to take a prey ... Israel.
PRIEST – or priestess is a person having the authority or power to administer religious rites; in particular, rites of sacrifice to, and propitiation of, a deity or deities.
PRIESTHOOD – is a body of priests, shamans, or oracles who have special religious authority or function. The term priest is derived from Latin presbyter.
PRIMATE – An Anglican primate is the chief bishop or archbishop of one of the thirty-eight churches (also known as provinces) of the Anglican Communion.
PROLEPSIS – (plural prolepses; from Ancient Greek pro-lamb?nein, to anticipate) A figure of speech in which a future event is referred to in anticipation. A philosophical concept used in ancient epistemology (in particular by Epicurus and the Stoa) to indicate a so-called “preconception.”
PROPHESY – Prophecy is history written in advance. Prophecy's accuracy hinges upon the dependency of the one who made it. Bible prophecy is Gods description of future events (Acts 15:18). God's Word contains 10,385 predictions and each one has been or will be fulfilled in the minutest of details. Gods Word has proven itself by not failing in one small point concerning Christ's first coming. Prophecy concerning His Second Coming is also being fulfilled and skeptics must forever admit their shortsightedness (Romans 3:4). He will come again (Acts 1-11).
PROPHET – A man, chosen by God, inspired to speak forth God's message to reveal the future to man. A prophet is a forth teller and a foreteller. He speaks for God through direct communication (Exodus 33:11; Numbers 12:8), through dreams (Numbers 12:6; Daniel 7:1), or through visions (Daniel 7:1; Hosea 12:10). Old Testament verification of a prophet included a judgment as to whether he spoke according to the Law and to the testimony (Isaiah 8:20) and whether his prophecy came to pass (Deuteronomy 18:22). It seems that Enoch was the first prophet (Jude 14). A school of prophets was founded under Samuel (1 Samuel 10:5; 19:20; 2 Kings 2:3, 5; 4:38; 6:1).
PROPITIATION – In Christian theology, propitiation is the work of Jesus Christ on the cross, by which He fulfills the wrath of God (both an emotional response of anger and a moral response of indignation), and conciliates Him who would otherwise be offended by our sin and would demand that we pay the penalty for it. The concept of propitiation is associated in some Christian theological systems with indemnity, imputed righteousness, and substitutionary atonement.
PROSELYTISM – is the practice of attempting to convert people to another opinion and, particularly, another religion.
PROTESTANT – The word is derived from the Latin protestatio meaning declaration.
PROTESTANTISM – encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. Protestant doctrine, in contradistinction to that of Roman Catholicism, rejects papal authority and doctrine, and is also known in continental European traditions as Evangelical doctrine. It holds that biblical scripture (rather than tradition or ecclesiastic interpretation of scripture) is the only source of revealed biblical truth, and also that salvation can be achieved through God's grace alone.
PSALMS – Psalms (Hebrew: Tehillim or “praises”) is a book of the Hebrew Bible. Taken together, its 150 sacred poems express virtually the full range of Israel's faith. Modern scholars generally conclude that Psalms is a post-Exilic collection of poems, the work of several authors from differing dates. Many of the poems were probably composed as early as the Monarchy, when they honored successions of Davidic kings. The early poems may have been used in worship at the First Temple.
PULPIT – (from Latin pulpitum “scaffold”, “platform”, “stage”) is a small elevated platform where a member of the clergy stands in order to read the Gospel lesson and/or deliver a sermon.
PURAH  – pu'-ra (purah, "branch"): Gideon's "servant," literally, "young man," i.e. armor-bearer.
PURGATORY – In Roman Catholic Christianity, purgatory is the condition, process, or place of purification or temporary punishment in which the souls of those who die in a state of grace are made ready for heaven.
PWRDF – The Primate's World Relief and Development Fund. Is the Anglican Church of Canada's agency for sustainable development, relief, refugees, and global justice. With the support of Anglican parishes across Canada, PWRDF makes financial and human resources available to support partners' initiatives and to promote knowledgeable actions of solidarity at home and around the world.
QUR'AN – See Koran.
RABBONI  – Rabboni is a form of Rabbi. In Jesus' day it was a term of dignity given by the Jews to their distinguished teachers. The Pharisees loved to be called ‘Rabbi’; but Jesus told his disciples, “Do not be called ‘Rabbi’; for One is your teacher, the Christ, and you are all brethen”( Matt, 23:7-8).
RAINBOW – Christ, in His deity, is usually surrounded by a cloud (Psalm 97:2; Exodus 16-9 10; 40:34, 38; Matthew 17:5; Acts 1:9; Luke 21:27; Revelation 1:7; 10:1). When God made a covenant with Noah, He placed a rainbow in the cloud as a symbol of His mercy The rainbow pictures mercy in the midst of judgment. Who but the Lord could wear it (Revelation 10:1,4:3)? Christ is often pictured as One who has a shining face as unto the sun. In fact, Saul of Tarsus met this One whose countenance is light on the Damascus turnpike (Acts 9:3). The combination of clouds and sun often produces rainbows, a “sign” or symbol that He keeps His Word (Genesis 9:13).
RAMADAN  – The month of Ramadan is that in which was revealed the Quran; a guidance for mankind, and clear proofs of the guidance, and the criterion (of right and wrong). Thus, according to the Quran, Muhammad first received revelations in the lunar month of Ramadan. Therefore, the month of Ramadan is considered to be the most sacred month of the Islamic calendar, the recording of which began with the Hijra. The "Hijra" (Arabic: hijrah), also Hijrat or Hegira, is the migration or journey of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina between June 21 and July 2 in 622 AD.
RAPTURE – There are two stages or phases within the process of the Second Coming — the Rapture and the Revelation - and these are separated by a seven-year period of time. The Rapture is the next occurrence on God's calendar and is the literal, visible, and bodily return of Christ in the heavenlies. He shall return as He left (Acts 1:9-11). One can easily know how He departed by studying Luke 24:39. He had a new resurrected body of flesh and bones — a body that could be seen, touched, and fed (vss. 41-43). When He returns in the heavenlies, all believers, dead and living, will also be taken bodily to meet Him in the clouds. We shall be changed as this mortal body puts on immortality and is transformed to be like Jesus' body (1 Corinthians 15:51-54; Psalm 17:15; 1 John 3:2). This happens in a moment, in “the twinkling of an eye”. This event ends the Church Age and ushers in the Tribulation period. The Rapture of the Church involves the resurrection of the Christian dead as well as the exit from earth of all believers living at that time (1 Thessalonians 4:13-18). Regarding the Christian dead, the Bible teaches that the body is asleep in one place (the grave) whereas the soul is alive in another place (heaven). To be “absent from the body” is to be present with the Lord (2 Corinthians 5:8). When Christ returns at the Rapture, He brings those that sleep (are dead) with Him (1 Thessalonians 4:14). The dead are in two places! The souls and spirits are with the Lord, but their bodies are in the grave. Hence Christ brings the dead (souls and spirits) with Him so they may be reunited with their bodies. That is why the dead in Christ rise first. The return of Christ for His Church is a signless and always-imminent event. Even the New Testament writers expected the Lord's return at any moment (Philippians 3:20). All signs of the Lord's return have to do with the coming of Christ to set up His kingdom. They are only indicators of the approaching Rapture because that event precedes the establishment of the kingdom by seven years ... in fact; we must be raptured so as to return with Him. The moment the Antichrist signs the seven-year peace pact the Tribulation period will begin and a timetable will be evident. Date-setting will now be conclusive and Christ's return will no longer be imminent. It will be exactly 84 months or 2,520 days until Christ returns to establish His kingdom. The Rapture must precede the Tribulation Hour. The Church is not to be the recipient of wrath. When one considers God's purpose for the Tribulation, it is difficult to place the Bride of Christ into such a horrendous scene. Why should Christ's Bride suffer the judgments of the seven seals, seven trumpets, and seven vials found in Revelation 6,8,9,11,15,16, when the Church cannot be found beyond the third chapter of the Book of Revelation?
RECONCILIATION – The reestablishment of friendly relations; conciliation or rapprochement.
A Catholic sacrament involving contrition, confession, punishment and absolution; penance.
RELIGION – A system of beliefs, including belief in the existence of at least one of the following: a human soul or spirit, a deity or higher being, or self after the death of one’s body.
RESURRECTION –  anglicized from Latin resurrectio, refers to the literal coming back to life of the biologically dead. It is used both with respect to particular individuals or the belief in a Resurrection of the Dead at the end of the world. The Resurrection of the Dead is a standard eschatological belief in the Abrahamic religions. The death and resurrection of Jesus is the central focus of Christianity.
REVERENCE – Profound respect and esteem mingled with fear and affection, as for a holy being or place; the disposition to revere; veneration. The act of revering; a token of respect or veneration; an obeisance.
ROD – 1. (n.) An instrument for measuring. 2. (n.) A measure of length containing sixteen and a half feet; -- called also perch, and pole. 3. (n.) A straight and slender stick; a wand; hence, any slender bar, as of wood or metal (applied to various purposes). 4. (n.) An instrument of punishment or correction; figuratively, chastisement. 5. (n.) A kind of scepter, or badge of office; hence, figuratively, power; authority; tyranny; oppression.
ROMA – are a subgroup of the Romani people (also known as Gypsies), who live primarily in Central and Eastern Europe, as well as in the Balkans and Western Anatolia, and as recent immigrants in Western Europe and the Americas. Roma is also used as a synonym for the whole Romani people.
SACRAMENT – a rite, instituted by Christ, that mediates grace, constituting a sacred mystery. The most conventional functional definition of a sacrament is that it is an outward sign, instituted by Christ, that conveys an inward, spiritual grace through Christ. The two most widely accepted sacraments are Baptism and the Eucharist; the majority of Christians recognize seven Sacraments or Divine Mysteries : Baptism, Confirmation (Chrismation in the Orthodox tradition), and the Eucharist, Holy Orders, Reconciliation of a Penitent (confession), anointing of the Sick, and Matrimony. Taken together, these are the Seven Sacraments as recognised by churches in the High church tradition – notably Roman Catholic, Eastern Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Independent Catholic, Old Catholic and some Anglicans, while the Orthodox Church typically does not limit the number of sacraments, viewing all encounters with reality in life as sacramental in some sense, and the acknowledgment of the number of sacraments at seven.
SACRIFICE – (from a Middle English verb meaning “to make sacred”, from Old French, from Latin sacrificium: sacer, “sacred” + facere, “to make”) is commonly known as the practice of offering food, money or the lives of animals or people to the gods as an act of worship.
SADDUCEES – (Hebrew: Sed?q?m) were a sect or group of Jews that were active in Ancient Israel during the Second Temple period, starting from the 2nd century BC through the destruction of the Temple in 70 AD. The sect was identified by Josephus with the upper social and economic echelon of Judean society. As a whole, the sect fulfilled various political, social and religious roles, including maintaining the Temple. The Sadducees are often compared to other contemporaneous sects, including the Pharisees and the Essenes. Their sect is believed to have become extinct sometime after the destruction of Herod's Temple in Jerusalem in 70 AD.
SAHIDIC – (also known as Thebaic) is the dialect in which most known Coptic texts are written, and was the leading dialect in the pre-Islamic period. It is thought to have originally been a regional dialect from the area around el-Ashmunein (Coptic Shmounein), but around 300 it began to be written in literary form, including translations of major portions of the Bible (see Coptic). By the 6th century, a standardized spelling had been attained throughout Egypt. Almost all native authors wrote in this dialect of Coptic. Sahidic was, beginning in the 9th century challenged by Bohairic, but is attested as late as the 14th century. While texts in other Coptic dialects are primarily translations of Greek literary and religious texts, Sahidic is the only dialect with a considerable body of original literature and non-literary texts. Because Sahidic shares most of its features with other dialects of Coptic with few peculiarities specific to itself, and has an extensive corpus of known texts, it is generally the dialect studied by learners of Coptic, particularly by scholars outside of the Coptic Church.
SAINT GEORGE – George of Lydda (April 23, 303) was according to tradition, a Roman soldier in the Guard of Emperor Diocletian, venerated as a Christian martyr. In Christian hagiography Saint George is one of the most venerated saints in the Anglican Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodox Churches, and the Eastern Catholic Churches. He is immortalised in the tale of George and the Dragon and is one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers. His memorial is celebrated on 23 April. He is regarded as one of the most prominent military saints. St. George is the patron saint of Aragon, Catalonia, England, Ethiopia, Georgia, Greece, Palestine, Portugal, and Russia, as well as the cities of Amersfoort, Beirut, Bteghrine, C?ceres, Ferrara, Freiburg, Genoa, Ljubljana, Gozo, Pomorie, Qormi, Lod and Moscow, as well as a wide range of professions, organisations and disease sufferers.
SAINT JOHN – See John the Baptist
SAINT PATRICK –  Patrick was born in Roman Britain in the 4th century, into a wealthy Romano-British family. His father and grandfather were deacons in the Church. At the age of sixteen, he was kidnapped by Irish raiders and taken captive to Ireland as a slave. It is believed he was held somewhere on the west coast of Ireland, possibly Mayo, but the exact location is unknown. According to his Confession, he was told by God in a dream to flee from captivity to the coast, where he would board a ship and return to Britain. Upon returning, he quickly joined the Church in Auxerre in Gaul and studied to be a priest. In 432, he again said that he was called back to Ireland, though as aShamrock bishop, to Christianise the Irish from their native polytheism. Irish folklore tells that one of his teaching methods included using the shamrock to explain the Christian doctrine of the Trinity to the Irish people. After nearly thirty years of evangelism, he died on 17 March 461, and according to tradition, was buried at Downpatrick. Patrick endured as the principal champion of Irish Christianity and is still held in esteem in the Irish Church and many others.
SAINT PAUL  – also called the Apostle Paul, Saul of Tarsus, and Saint Paul (c. AD 5 – c. AD 67), was one of the most influential early Christian missionaries, with his writings forming a considerable portion of the New Testament. He was a Greek-speaking Jew, who called himself the “Apostle to the Gentiles” and was, together with Saint Peter and James the Just, the most notable of early Christian missionaries. His influence on Christian thinking has been significant due to his role as a prominent apostle of Christianity during the spreading of the Gospel through early Christian communities across the Roman Empire. According to the Bible, Paul was known as Saul prior to his conversion, and was dedicated to the persecution of the early disciples of Jesus in the area of Jerusalem. According to the Acts of the Apostles, his conversion took place as he was traveling from Jerusalem to Damascus on a mission to "bring them which were there bound unto Jerusalem". The resurrected Jesus appeared to him in a great light. Saul was struck blind, but after three days his sight was restored by Ananias of Damascus, and Paul began to preach that Jesus of Nazareth is the Jewish Messiah and the Son of God. Unlike the Twelve Apostles, there is no indication that Paul ever met Jesus before the latter's crucifixion. Paul asserts that he received the Gospel not from man, but by “the revelation of Jesus Christ”. Paul's influence on Christian thinking arguably has been more significant than any other
New Testament author.
SAINT PETER  – also called the Apostle Peter, also known as Simon Peter, was an early Christian leader, one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ according to the New Testament and Christian tradition, and the very first bishop. Peter is featured prominently in the New Testament Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles and is venerated as a saint and the first Pope by the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and Oriental Orthodoxy. The son of John[Jn. 1:42] or of Jonah or Jona, he was from the village of Bethsaida in the province of Galilee or Gaulanitis. His brother Andrew was also an apostle. Peter is venerated in multiple churches and is regarded as the Catholic Church's first pope. He is credited with establishing the church in Antioch and presiding for seven years as the leader of that city's Christian community. Either in person or via epistle, his words reached Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia Minor and Bithynia where they were received by scattered communities of believers: Jews, Hebrew Christians and Gentiles. Peter then went to Rome where in the second year of Emperor Claudius Germanicus, it is claimed, he overthrew the sorcerer Simon Magus, was later freed by his Guardian Angel from prison, and held the Cathedral Chair for 25 years. Two general epistles are ascribed to Peter, although some Biblical scholarship rejects the Petric authorship of both. The Gospel of Mark was traditionally thought to show the influence of Peter's preaching and eyewitness memories. According to New Testament accounts, Peter was one of twelve apostles chosen by Jesus from his first disciples. Originally a fisherman, he was assigned a leadership role and was with Jesus during events witnessed by only a few apostles, such as the Transfiguration. According to the New Testament, Peter confessed Jesus as the Messiah, was part of Jesus' inner circle, walked on water, denied Jesus, and preached on the day of Pentecost. Peter is said to have been crucified under Emperor Nero Augustus Caesar. It is traditionally held that he was crucified upside down at his own request, since he saw himself unworthy to be crucified in the same way as Jesus Christ. Catholic tradition holds that Saint Peter's site of crucifixion is located in the Clementine Chapel, while his mortal bones and remains are contained in the underground Confessio of St. Peter's Basilica, where Pope Paul VI announced the excavated discovery of a first-century Roman cemetery in 1968.
SAMARITAN – The Samaritans (Hebrew: Shomronim, Arabic: as-Samariyyun) are an ethnoreligious group of the Levant. Religiously, they are the adherents to Samaritanism, an Abrahamic religion closely related to Judaism. Based on the Samaritan Torah, Samaritans claim their worship is the true religion of the ancient Israelites prior to the Babylonian Exile, preserved by those who remained in the Land of Israel, as opposed to Judaism, which they assert is a related but altered and amended religion brought back by those returning from exile. Ancestrally, they claim descent from a group of Israelite inhabitants from the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh (the two sons of Joseph) as well as some descendants from the priestly tribe of Levi, who have connections to ancient Samaria from the period of their entry into the land of Canaan, while some suggest that it was from the beginning of the Babylonian Exile up to the Samaritan Kingdom of Baba Rabba. The Samaritans, however,
derive their name not from this geographical designation, but rather from the Hebrew term
Shamerim, "Keepers [of the Law]".
SANCTIFY – Sanctification is an ancient concept widespread among religions that refers to anything blessed or set apart for special purposes, from totem poles to temple vessels, to the change brought about in a human believer. The word sanctification refers to the act or process of making sacred or setting apart as special. To sanctify is literally “to set apart for special use or purpose,” figuratively “to make holy or sacred,” and etymologically from the Latin verb sanctificare which in turn is from sanctus “holy” and facere “to make.”
SANHEDRIN TRIAL – refers to the trial of Jesus before the Jewish Council, or Sanhedrin, following his arrest and prior to his trial before Pontius Pilate. It is an event reported by all four Canonical Gospels of the Bible (Mark 14:53–65, Matthew 26:57–68, Luke 22:63–71 and John 18:12-24). The Gospels report that after Jesus Christ and his followers celebrated Passover as their Last Supper, Jesus was betrayed by his Apostle Judas Iscariot, and arrested in the Garden of Gethsemane (sometimes known as the garden of tears). Jesus was then put on trial by Jewish authorities to determine whether his guilt, in their eyes, justified handing him over to the Roman Governor Pontius Pilate with their request that the Roman Empire put Jesus to death on popular demand from the people. The trial most probably took place informally on Thursday night and then again formally on Friday morning .
SATAN – (“the accuser”); Arabic: ash-Shaytan (“the adversary”) - both from the Semitic root: S-T-N) is an embodiment of antagonism that originates from the Abrahamic religions, being traditionally considered a “fallen” angel in Judeo-Christian belief, and a Jinn in Islamic belief. Originally, the term was used as a title for various entities (humans, accusing angels, etc.) that challenged the religious faith of humans in the Hebrew Bible. Since then, the Abrahamic religions have used “Satan” as a name for the Devil.
SEFER TORAH – A Hebrew term (“book of Torah”) refers to the Five Books of Moses written on a scroll of parchment in a formal, traditional manner by a specially trained Torah scribe under very strict requirements.
SERAPHIM – A seraph (Heb. pl. Seraphim, Lat. seraph[us], pl. seraphi[m]) is one of a class of celestial beings mentioned once in the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh or Old Testament), in Isaiah “each had six wings: with two they covered their faces, and with two they covered their feet, and with two they flew.” Later Jewish imagery perceived them as having human form, and in that way they passed into the ranks of Christian angels. In the Christian angelic hierarchy, seraphim represent the highest rank of angels. The Seraphim make their first Christian appearance in the Book of Revelation iv. 4-8, where they are forever in God's presence and praising Him constantly: “Day and night with out ceasing they sing: 'Holy, holy, holy is the Lord God Almighty, who was and is and is to come.'” The Seraphim and the cherubim are, in Christian theology, two separate types of angels. The descriptions of the Seraphim, Cherubim and Ophanim are often similar, but still distinguishable.
SEVEN CHURCHES of Revelation  – also known as The Seven Churches of the Apocalypse. and The Seven Churches of Asia (referring to the Roman province of Asia, not the entire continent), are seven major churches of Early Christianity, as mentioned in the New Testament Book of Revelation and written to by Ignatius of Antioch. All seven sites are in modern-day Turkey and no longer have significant Christian populations since they were emptied of Christians under the Treaty of Lausanne. In Revelation, on the island of Patmos, Greece, Jesus Christ instructs His servant John to: “What thou seest, write in a book, and send it unto the seven churches which are in Asia; unto Ephesus, and unto Smyrna, and unto Pergamos, and unto Thyatira, and unto Sardis, and unto Philadelphia, and unto Laodicea.”
SEVENTY DISCIPLES  – or seventy-two disciples (known in the Eastern Christian tradition as the SEVENTY APOSTLES) were early students of Jesus mentioned in the Gospel of Luke 10:1–24. According to Luke, the only gospel in which they appear, Jesus appointed them and sent them out in pairs on a specific mission which is detailed in the text. In Western Christianity, they are usually referred to as disciples, whereas in Eastern Christianity they are usually referred to as Apostles. Using the original Greek words, both titles are descriptive, as an apostle is one sent on a mission (the Greek uses the verb form: apesteilen) whereas a disciple is a student, but the two traditions differ on the scope of the words apostle and disciple.
SHALOM – (Sephardic Hebrew/Israeli Hebrew: Shalom; Ashkenazi Hebrew/Yiddish: Sholem, Shoilem, Shulem) is a Hebrew word meaning peace, completeness, and welfare and can be used idiomatically to mean both hello and goodbye. As it does in English, it can refer to either peace between two entities (especially between man and God or between two countries), or to the well-being, welfare or safety of an individual or a group of individuals.
SHEKINA – The term “Shekina” is best translated as “Divine Presence” and is simply another term for God. This term refers to man's relationship with God. This relationship can be illustrated with the following example: Imagine being in the Grand Canyon before sunrise, totally enveloped in the darkness of its vast depths. Suddenly, the first ray of sunlight beams from the horizon, and you witness a beautiful sunrise. You think to yourself, “Is it possible this sunrise was a mere chemical mishap? No, this must be a creation of God!” The awe that person felt, is the experience with the Shechina, which is referred to in the feminine.
SHEOL – (pronounced “Sheh-ol”), in Hebrew (She'ol), is the “grave”, or “pit” or “abyss”. In Judaism She'ol is the earliest conception of the afterlife in the Jewish Scriptures. It is a place of darkness to which all dead go (righteous and wicked go alike) and where they are removed from the light of God (see the Book of Job). It precedes notions of judgement after death or any division between heaven and hell. It is unclear whether sheol was to be considered a real place or whether a way of referring to the oblivion that awaits us all after death. The word “hades” (= underworld) was substituted for “sheol” when the Hebrew scriptures were translated into Greek in ancient Alexandria around 200 BCE.
SHOFAR – ShofarA shofar (Hebrew) is a horn, traditionally that of a ram, used for Jewish religious purposes. Shofar-blowing is incorporated in synagogue services on Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur. The shofar is mentioned frequently in the Hebrew Bible, the Talmud and rabbinic literature. The blast of a shofar emanating from the thick cloud on Mount Sinai made the Israelites tremble in awe (Exodus 19: 19). The shofar was used to announce holidays (Psalm 81: 4), and the Jubilee year (Leviticus 25: 9). The first day of the seventh month (Tishri) is termed “a memorial of blowing”
(Leviticus 23: 24), or “a day of blowing” (Numbers 29: 1), the shofar. It was also employed in processions (2 Sam. 6: 15; 1 Chronicles 15: 28), as a musical accompaniment (Psalm 98: 6) and to signify the start of a war (Joshua 6: 4; Judges 3: 27; 7: 16, 20; 1 Samuel 8: 3). Note that the 'trumpets' described in Numbers 10 are a different instrument, described by the Hebrew word 'trumpet' not the word for shofar.
SHRAMANA – A shramana (Sanskrit sramana, Pali samana) is a wandering monk in certain ascetic traditions of ancient India, including Jainism, Buddhism, and Ajivika religion (now extinct). Famous sramana include religious leaders Mahavira and Gautama Buddha. Traditionally, a sramana is one who has renounced the world and leads an ascetic life of austerity for the purpose of spiritual development and liberation. According to typical sramana worldviews, a human being is responsible for their own deeds and will reap the fruits of those deeds for good or ill. Liberation, therefore, may be achieved by anybody irrespective of caste, creed, color or culture (in contra-distinction to certain historical caste-based traditions) providing the necessary effort is made. The cycle of rebirth (samsara) to which every individual is subject is viewed as the cause and substratum of misery.
SHROVE – is a past tense of the English verb “shrive,” which means to obtain absolution for one's sins by confessing and doing penance.
SHROVE MONDAY – sometimes known as Collop Monday, Rose Monday, Merry Monday or Hall Monday, is the Monday before Ash Wednesday.
SHROVE TUESDAY – is the term used in Ireland, the United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada to refer to the day after Shrove Monday (or the more old fashioned Collop Monday) and before Ash Wednesday (the liturgical season of Lent begins on Ash Wednesday). In Ireland, the UK, and amongst Anglicans, Lutherans and possibly other Protestant denominations in Canada including Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and New Brunswick, this day is also known as Pancake Day or Pancake Tuesday, because it is customary to eat pancakes on this day.
SHUCKLING – from the Yiddish word meaning “to shake” (also written as shokeling) is the ritual swaying of Jewish worshippers during prayer, usually forward and back but also from side to side. This practice can be traced back to at least the eighth century, and possibly as far back as Talmudic times. It is believed to increase concentration and emotional intensity. In Chassidic lore, shuckeling is seen as an expression of the soul's desire to abandon the body and reunite itself with its source, similar to a flame's shaking back and forth as if to free itself from the wick.
SIN – (theology) A violation of a moral or religious law; an error.
SMYRNA – (Greek) was the ancient city now in Turkey, represented by modern Izmir. Located at a central and strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia. As one of the principal cities of Roman Asia, Smyrna vied with Ephesus and Pergamum for the title “First City of Asia.” A Christian church existed here from a very early time, probably originating in the considerable Jewish colony. It was one of the seven churches addressed in the Book of (Revelation 2:8). Saint Ignatius of Antioch visited Smyrna and later wrote letters to its bishop, Polycarp. A mob of Jews and pagans abetted the martyrdom of Polycarp in AD 153.
SOOTHSAYER – Soothsayer may refer to: One practicing divination, including:
Fortune-teller and Oracle.
SPIRITUALITY – in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit, a concept closely tied to religious belief and faith, a transcendent reality, and God. Spiritual matters are thus those matters regarding humankind's ultimate nature and purpose, not only as material biological organisms, but as beings with a unique relationship to that which is beyond both time and the material world.
SUFFRAGAN Bishop – A suffragan bishop is a bishop subordinate to a metropolitan bishop or diocesan bishop. He may be assigned to an area which does not have a cathedral of its own. In the Anglican Churches, the term applies to a bishop who is a full-time assistant to a diocesan bishop, for example, the Bishop of Jarrow is suffragan to the Bishop of Durham (the diocesan). Some Anglican suffragans are given the responsibility for a geographical area within the diocese (for example, the Bishop of Selby is an area bishop within the Diocese of York). The practice of appointing such bishops can be traced to the Suffragan Bishops Act 1534. Suffragan bishops in the Anglican community are nearly identical in their role to auxiliary bishops in the Roman Catholic church.
SYNAGOGUE – A synagogue (from Greek: transliterated synagoge, “assembly”; beyt knesset, “house of assembly”; or beyt t'fila, “house of prayer”, shul; esnoga kal) is a Jewish house of prayer. (it might also be of interest that the word when broken down could mean, “learning together” (syn - gr. together and aghoghei gr. learning or training).
SYNOD – The word comes from the Greek meaning “assembly” or “meeting”, and it is synonymous with the Latin word concilium  –  “council”. A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church, convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application.
An ecumenical council is so named because it is a synod of the whole church (or, more accurately, of what those who call it consider to be the whole church.)
SYNOPTIC GOSPELS – (from Greek syn, together, and opsis, seeing) are the first three gospels — Matthew, Mark, and Luke — found in the New Testament of the Bible. These gospels often recount the same stories about Jesus, generally follow the same sequence and use similar wording. The hows and whys of these books' similarities and differences to each other and to other gospels is known as the synoptic problem.
TALENT(plural talents) – (from Latin talentum) a Grecian weight; a talent of money -(from Ancient Greek talanton) balance, a particular weight, esp. of gold, sum of money, a talent. The figurative meanings come from Matthew 25:14-30; a marked ability or skill; the potential or factual ability to perform a skill better than most people.
TALMUD –  (Hebrew: “instruction, learning,” from a root lmd “teach, study”) is a central text of mainstream Judaism, in the form of a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history.
TANAKH – the Hebrew Bible.
TEMPLE – (from the Latin word templum) is a structure reserved for religious or spiritual activities, such as prayer and sacrifice, or analogous rites. A templum constituted a sacred precinct as defined by a priest, or augur.) It has the same root as the word "template," a plan in preparation of the building that was marked out on the ground by the augur. Templa also became associated with the dwelling places of a god or gods. The word "temple" dates to about the 6th century BCE.
TEN COMMANDMENTS – The 10 Commandments are first recorded in the book of Exodus. They were given by God at Mt. Sinai following the Israelites escape from slavery in Egypt.
The 10 Commandments were moral statutes given by God, through Moses, so that the Israelites could enjoy fruitful and holy lives. The Commandments were significant in that they formed the basis of Jewish life, law and faith. Inscribed on stone tablets, the 10 Commandments were initially broken by Moses in anger over the flagrant sins of the Israelites. They were then re-inscribed and kept in the Ark of thecovenant at the command of God.Moses Holding the Ten Commandments

“And God spoke all these words, saying: 'I am the LORD your God…
  1. 'Thou shalt have no other gods before Me.'
  2. ' Thou shalt not make for yourself a carved image--any likeness
    of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth.'
  3. 'Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain; for the Lord will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain.'
  4. 'Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy. Six days you shall labor, and do all your work, but the seventh day is a Sabbath to the Lord your God. On it you shall not do any work .... For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested on the seventh day. '
  5. 'Honor your father and your mother, so that you may live long in the land the Lord your God is giving you.'
  6. 'Thous shalt not kill.'
  7. 'Thou shalt not commit adultery.'
  8. 'Thou shalt not steal.'
  9. 'Thou shalt not bear false witness against your neighbor.
  10. 'You shall not covet your neighbor's house. You shall not covet your neighbor's wife, or his manservant or maidservant, his ox or donkey, or anything that belongs to your neighbor.' ”
TENEBRAE – (Latin for 'shadows' or 'darkness') [The opposite of Advent] is a Christian religious service celebrated by the Western Church on the evening before or early morning of Maundy Thursday, Good Friday, and Holy Saturday, which are the last three days of
Holy Week. The distinctive ceremony of Tenebrae is the gradual extinguishing of candles while a series of readings and psalms are chanted or recited.
TENET – a Tenet is any opinion, principle, dogma, or doctrine which a person, sect, school etc..., believes or maintains; such as the tenets of Plato or of Cicero. The word Tenet is used often in business to describe the principles of an idea.
TERRACOTTA, Terra cotta or Terra-cotta  – (“baked earth”, from the Latin terra cocta) is a clay-based unglazed ceramic. Its uses include vessels, water and waste water pipes and surface embellishment in building construction, along with sculpture such as the Terracotta Army and Greek terracotta figurines. The term is also used to refer to items made out of this material and to its natural, brownish orange color, which varies considerably. In archaeology and art history, “terracotta” is often used of objects not made on a potter's wheel, such as figurines, where objects made on the wheel from the same material, possibly even by the same person, are called pottery. As compared to bronze sculpture, terracotta uses a far simpler process for creating the finished work with much lower material costs.
TETRARCH – (Ancient Greek: Tetr?rches, “ruler of a quarter”; later also Greek: Tétrarchos) can refer to one of the four co-emperors of the Roman Empire under the Tetrarchy, minor provincial rulers of a territory divided in four parts. a military rank: in the Macedonian army, an officer in charge of a unit associated with the number four (tetra), such as a quarter of a larger unit (such as a phalanx, or in one case a 'company' of 64 footmen), or comprising four smaller units (in one case 4 lochoi, each under a lochagos). In the Byzantine army, a tetrarchos was the soldier given command over 4 men in a file.
THEOLOGIANS – Those that study religion and use various forms of analysis and argument (philosophical, ethnographic, historical) to help understand, explain, test, critique, defend or promote any of a myriad of religious topics.
THEOLOGY – is the study of religion from a religious perspective. It has been defined as reasoned discourse about God or the gods, or more generally about religion or spirituality.
THEOPHANY – From the Greek , theo (God), and phainein (to show forth), theophaneia which translates “appearance/showing of God”, theophany means an appearance of a God to man, or a divine disclosure.
TITHE – A tithe (from Old English teogo?a “tenth”) is a one-tenth part of something, paid as a (usually) voluntary contribution or as a tax or levy, usually to support a Christian religious organization. Today, tithes (or tithing) are normally voluntary and paid in cash, cheques, or stocks, whereas historically tithes could be paid in kind, such as agricultural products. Some interpretations of Biblical teachings conclude that although tithing was practiced extensively in the Old Testament, it was never practiced or taught within the first-century Church. Instead the New Testament scriptures are seen as teaching the concept of “freewill offerings” as a means of supporting the church:
1 Corinthians 16:2; 2 Corinthians 9:7.
TORAH – is the primary holy scripture of Judaism. According to Talmudic teachings the Torah was created 974 generations (2,000 years) before the world was created, and is the blueprint that God used to create the world. Furthermore, the Talmud teaches, everything created in this world is for the purpose of carrying out the word of the Torah, and the foundation Jewish belief stems from the knowledge that the Lord is the God Who created the world.
TRANSFIGURATION – a large change in appearance or form; a metamorphosis; a change that exalts or glorifies. The Transfiguration of Jesus is an event reported by the Synoptic gospels in which Jesus is transfigured upon a mountain (Matthew 17:1-9, Mark 9:2-8, Luke 9:28-36). Jesus became radiant, spoke with Moses and Elijah, and was called “Son” by God. It is one of the miracles of Jesus in the Gospels. This miracle is unique among others that appear in the Gospels, in that the miracle happens to Jesus himself. Thomas Aquinas considered the Transfiguration “the greatest miracle” in that it complemented baptism and showed the perfection of life in heaven. According to the Gospels, Peter, James, son of Zebedee and John the Apostle were with Jesus upon the mountain.
The transfiguration put Jesus above Moses and Elijah, the two preeminent figures of Judaism.
It also supports His identity as the Son of God.
TRANSUBSTANTIATION – In Roman Catholic theology, transubstantiation (in Latin - transsubstantiatio, in Greek - metousiosis) is the doctrine that, in the Eucharist, the substance of wheat bread and grape wine changes into the substance of the Body and the Blood of Jesus, while all that is accessible to the senses (the appearances - species in Latin) remains as before.
TREASON – In law, treason is the crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one's sovereign or nation. Historically, treason also covered the murder of specific social superiors, such as the murder of a husband by his wife or that of a master by his servant or slave. Treason against the king was known as high treason and treason against a lesser superior was petty treason. A person who commits treason is known in law as a traitor.
TRINITY – The Trinity is a Christian doctrine, stating that God is one Being Who exists, simultaneously and eternally, as a mutual indwelling of three persons: the Father, the Son (incarnate as Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit.
TRISAGION – The Trisagion (Greek: "Thrice Holy"), sometimes called by its opening line Agios O Theos or by the Latin Tersanctus, is a standard hymn of the Divine Liturgy.
TRUMP OF GOD – Along with the shout and the voice of the archangel, the trumpet will sound to summon the dead in Christ and the living believers to heaven (1 Thessalonians 4:16). Apparently only believers will hear this trumpet as the Rapture is a silent exodus.
Trumpets in Scripture were used as a summons to assemble people (Numbers 10:2) and to announce God's divine presence (Exodus 19:16).
TRUMPETS – (See Judgments)
TWELVE TRIBES OF ISRAEL – (The name "Israel" is the name God used to rename "Jacob")
the descendants of Joseph formed two of the tribes of Israel, whereas each of the other sons of Jacob was the founder of only one tribe. Thus there were in reality thirteen tribes; but the number twelve was preserved by excluding that of Levi when Ephraim and Manasseh are mentioned separately.
(Num 1:32-34; Josh 17:14,17; 1 Chr 7:20)

The order of Jacob's children (listed by mother)
    LEAH (Jacob's first wife)
  1. Reuben (Born first, he inherited the family birthright, but later lost it)
  2. Simeon
  3. Levi (This tribe elevated to form the Priesthood of the country)
  4. Judah
  5. Issachar
  6. Zebulun
  7. Dinah (Girls were not eligible for tribal status)
    RACHEL (Jacob's second wife, his favorite)
  1. Joseph (Because he saved the family, Jacob took the birthright from Simeon (who had sold Joseph into slavery) and gave it to Joseph. Jacob made Joseph a patriarch like himself by adopting Joseph's two sons giving them equal status with his own sons, i.e., adding them to the 12 tribes of Israel.)
    1. Manasseh
    2. Ephraim (Inherited the family birthright following Jacob's blessing)
  2. Benjamin
    BILHAH (Rachel's slave girl)
  1. Dan
  2. Naphtali
    ZILPAH (Leah's slave girl)
  1. Gad
  2. Asher
Jacob (Israel) fell in love with Rachel and wanted to marry her, but her father Laban tricked Jacob into marrying his older daughter, Leah, first.  Later Jacob was able to marry his first choice (Rachel).
She was always his favorite (the woman he loved); and her son Joseph was Jacob's favorite son. Jealous of this, his other brothers (the other tribes of Israel as it were) sold Joseph into slavery.
In slavery, Joseph was taken to Egypt and later became the overseer of all the grain in pharaoh's storehouse. A famine threatened to wipe out the family of Jacob and they went to Egypt seeking food. There they found Joseph. He forgave his brothers and was reunited with his birth family.
TYPOLOGY – An Old Testament person, institution, event, thing, office, place, or action intended by God to prefigure or foreshadow something that would be revealed at a later time.
For example, Moses lifting up the serpent is the type (Numbers 21:9), while Christ, lifted up on the cross is the antitype (John 3:14).
URIM & THUMMIM – In ancient Israelite religion and culture, Urim and Thummim is a phrase from the Hebrew Bible associated with the Hoshen (High Priest's breastplate.) They appear to be objects, the Bible describes them as being put into the breastplate worn by the high priest over the Ephod
(Lev. 8:8 – Moses put them into the Breastplate). The material of the breastplate was doubled and made a pouch so that the High Priest could put his hand on the inside. Inside this pouch rested the Urim and Thummin which were used to determine a persons guilt or innocence. Urim (lights) and Thummin (perfections) are plural words. It has been said that one stone was black and the other white. When a person was brought for judgment, if the priest pulled out a black stone, they were guilty. A white stone meant that they were innocent.
Traditional Verger Gown
VERGER – is a person, usually a layperson. The Office of the Verger has its roots in the early days of the Church of England's history. The Order shares certain similarities with the former Minor Orders of Porter and Acolyte. Historically Vergers were responsible for the order and upkeep of the house of worship, including the care of the church buildings, its furnishings, and sacred relics, preparations for liturgy, conduct of the laity, and grave-digging responsibilities.

VENERATION – In Christianity, veneration (Latin veneratio, Greek dulia), or veneration of saints, is a special act of honoring a saint: a dead person who has been identified as singular in the traditions of the religion, and through them honoring God who made them and in whose image they are made. It is practiced by the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Roman Catholic Church, and some members of the Anglican Communion. Veneration is often shown outwardly by respectfully bowing or making the sign of the cross before a saint's icon, relics, or statue. These items may also be kissed.
VESPERS – is the evening prayer service. The word comes from the Latin vesper, meaning “evening.” It is also referred to in Anglican circles as Evening Prayer.
VESTRY – In the Episcopal Church the vestry remains a body of lay members, elected by the congregation as a whole, which elects the rector of the church and conducts its secular business.
A vestry is also a room within or attached to a church which is used to store vestments and other items used in worship. It is usually of sufficient size to allow those using vestments to change into them, and thus in England and elsewhere was often used for meetings dealing with the administration of the local parish.
VIALS – (See Judgments) A Virge

 – It is presently best known as the ceremonial staff of the Anglican and Episcopalian lay church officers known as verger (or originally virger : the title derives from virge), who originally used it as a 'weapon' to make way for the ecclesiastical procession and occasionally to chastise unruly choristers.

WICCA – is a Neopagan religion and a form of modern witchcraft. It is often referred to as Witchcraft or the Craft by its adherents, who are known as Wicca PentacleWiccans or Witches. Its disputed origins lie in England in the early 20th century, though it was first popularised during the 1950s by Gerald Gardner, a retired British civil servant, who at the time called it the “witch cult” and “witchcraft”, and its adherents “the Wica”. From the 1960s the name of the religion was normalised to “Wicca”.   (Right) This pentacle, worn as a pendant, depicts a pentagram, or five-pointed star, used as a symbol of Wicca by many adherents.

WITCHCRAFT – in various historical, anthropological, religious and mythological contexts, is the alleged use of supernatural or magical powers, usually to inflict harm or damage upon members of a community or their property. Other uses of the term distinguish between bad witchcraft and good witchcraft, with the latter often involving healing, perhaps remedying bad witchcraft. The concept of witchcraft is normally treated as a cultural ideology, a means of explaining human misfortune by blaming it either on a supernatural entity or a known person in the community. A witch (from Old English wicce f. / wicca m.) is a practitioner of witchcraft.
WITNESS –  is one who brings a testimony, usually written or verbal. In its original meaning, the word martyr, meaning witness, was used in the secular sphere as well as in the New Testament of the Bible. The process of bearing witness was not intended to lead to the death of the witness, although it is known from ancient writers (e.g. Josephus) and from the New Testament that witnesses often died for their testimonies. During the early Christian centuries, the term acquired the extended meaning of a believer who is called to witness for their religious belief, and on account of this witness, endures suffering and/or death.
WORLD GOVERNMENT – Chapters 8 and 11 of Daniel state that knowledge and scientific advancement will be used by an international despot to control the nations of the world. Revelation 13:8,15-18 picture a world leader presiding over a world government whose international number is 666. He will take control of a newly built Jewish Temple in the Holy Land, proclaiming himself as the awaited Messiah (2 Thessalonlans 2:4). The world will accept his proclamations out of fear as world war looks imminent. This leader (see Antichrist) will convince humanity that he has the answers to the world's ills and that he alone can bring peace. On the basis of peace negotiations between Israel and many nations (Daniel 9:27), he is accepted. There will be a new world monetary system and every person on earth will be given a number (Revelation 13:16-18).
It looks as though this one-world despot will manipulate humanity with international computers.
This sophisticated computer system will be fashioned in his likeness (see Image of the Beast).
There will be no basic loyalty toward any country because whoever controls the monetary system
will control the world's billions.
WORMWOOD – Revelation 8:11 tells us that a star, or meteor, named Wormwood, will strike the earth and one-third of our planet's water supply will become poisoned. God created every star, knows their locations and has named them (Job 9:9).
He knows where the star, Wormwood, meaning “bitterness,” is as well and will use it (Jeremiah 9:15). Strange, is it not, that “wormwood” in the Ukrainian language and Bible is “Chernobyl”.
WORSHIP – usually refers to specific acts of religious praise, honour, or devotion, typically directed to a supernatural being such as God, a god or goddess. It is the informal term in English for what sociologists of religion call cultus, the body of practices and traditions that correspond to theology.
YAH – one of the names of God used in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). Yah may refer to: Iah, the Egyptian word for moon, OR Jah, the form of the name of God favored by Rastafarians; shortened form of “Jehovah” used at Psalm 68:4 (KJV) and elsewhere.
YAHWEH – According to the Bible, Yahweh is the personal name of the one true God who delivered Israel from Egypt and gave the Ten Commandments, Then God spoke all these words.
He said, “I am Yahweh your God who brought you out of Egypt, where you lived as slaves.
You shall have no other gods to rival me.”
YEAR OF JUBILEE – The name jubilee is derived from the Hebrew jobel , the joyful shout or clangor of trumpets, by which the year of jubilee was announced. The time of its celebration. --It was celebrated every fiftieth year, marking the half century; so that it followed the seventh sabbatic year, and for two years in succession the land lay fallow. It was announced by the blowing of trumpets on the day of atonement (about the 1st of October), the tenth day of the first month of the Israelites civil year (the seventh of their ecclesiastical year). The laws connected with the jubilee. --These embrace three points: (1) Rest for the soil. ( Leviticus 25:11 Leviticus 25:12 ) The land was to lie fallow, and there was to be no tillage as on the ordinary sabbatic year. The land was not to be sown, nor the vineyards and oliveyards dressed; and neither the spontaneous fruits of the soil nor the produce of the vine and olive was to be gathered, but all was to be left for the poor, the slave, the stranger and the cattle. ( Exodus 23:10 Exodus 23:11 ) The law was accompanied by a promise of treble fertility in the sixth year, the fruit of which was to be eaten till the harvest sown in the eighth year was reaped in the ninth. (Leviticus 25:20-22) But the people were not debarred from other sources of subsistence, nor was the year to be spent in idleness. They could fish and hunt, take care of their bees and flocks, repair their buildings and furniture, and manufacture their clothing. (2) Reversion of landed property. “The Israelites had a portion of land divided to each family by lot. This portion of the promised land they held of God, and were not to dispose of it as their property in fee-simple. Hence no Israelite could part with his landed estate but for a term of years only. When the jubilee arrived, it again reverted to the original owners.” --Bush. This applied to fields and houses in the country and to houses of the Levites in walled cities; but other houses in such cities, if not redeemed within a year from their sale, remained the perpetual property of the buyer. (3) The manumission of those Israelites who had become slaves. “Apparently this periodic emancipation applied to every class of Hebrew servants --to him who had sold himself because he had become too poor to provide for his family, to him who had been taken and sold for debt, and to him who had been sold into servitude for crime. Noticeably, this law provides for the family rights of the servant.”
ZEBULUNITE – a member of the tribe of Zebulun. Num. 26:27. Zebulun, tribe numbered at Sinai (Num. 1:31) and before entering Canaan (26:27). It was one of the tribes which did not drive out the Canaanites, but only made them tributary (Judg. 1:30). It took little interest in public affairs. It responded, however, readily to the summons of Gideon (6:35), and afterwards assisted in enthroning David at Hebron (1 Chr. 12:33, 40).
ZECHARIA – While Zecharia ministered at the golden Altar of incense in the holy place, it was announced to him by the angel Gabriel that his wife Elisabeth, who was also of a priestly family, now stricken in years, would give birth to a son who was to be called John, and that he would be the forerunner of the long-expected Messiah (Luke 1:12-17). As a punishment for his refusing to believe this message, he was struck dumb and “not able to speak until the day that these things should be performed”. Nine months passed away, and Elisabeth's child was born, and when in answer to their inquiry Zecharia wrote on a “writing tablet,” “His name is John,” his mouth was opened, and he praised God. The child (John the Baptist), thus “born out of due time,” “waxed strong in spirit.”
ZION – The term Zion came to designate the area of Jerusalem where the fortress stood, and later became a metaphor for Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem, the city of Jerusalem and the entire Promised Land to come, in which, according to the Hebrew Bible, God dwells among His chosen people. It commonly referred to a specific mountain near Jerusalem (Mount Zion), on which stood a Jebusite fortress of the same name that was conquered by David and was named the City of David.
ZIONISM – (Hebrew: Tsiyonut) is a nationalist Jewish political movement that, in its broadest sense, calls for the self-determination of the Jewish people and a sovereign, Jewish national homeland. Since the establishment of the State of Israel, the Zionist movement continues primarily to support and advocate on behalf of the Jewish state, and its current existence. Zionism is based on historical ties and religious traditions linking the Jewish people to the Land of Israel. Almost two millennia after the Jewish diaspora, the modern Zionist movement, beginning in the late 19th century, was mainly founded by secular Jews, largely as a response by Ashkenazi Jews to antisemitism and the Anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire.